Асинхронные электродвигатели

30 июля 2015г. - 14:05 4268 просмотров


Асинхронные электродвигателиАсинхронные электродвигатели – одни из самых использующихся электрических приборов. Их используют более 45% электростанций, которые вырабатывают непосредственно электричество.

Это электрические машины, которые преобразуют энергию тока в механическую энергию. В быту более распространенными считаются асинхронные электродвигатели.

Принцип работы асинхронного электродвигателя заключается в использовании магнитного поля, который при своей работе начинает вращаться.

Чтобы самому понять принцип работы, нужно провести следующий эксперимент: нужно укрепить магнит подковообразной формы на оси для того, чтобы его можно было вращать за ручку.

Посреди полюсов магнита нужно расположить на оси цилиндр из меди, чтобы ему удобно было вращаться. В итоге мы получаем вращающееся магнитное поле.


Вращающееся магнитное поле
Рисунок 1. Результат эксперимента. Вращающееся магнитное поле

Люди уже не представляют своей жизни без электрических приборов: телевизоров, стиральных машин, холодильников, компьютеров, которые в свою очередь вряд ли смогут работать без помощи асинхронных устройств. Также без них не смогут работать приводы. Для них созданы специальные трехфазные асинхронные электродвигатели, к примеру, электрические буры.

Теперь можем рассмотреть устройство асинхронного электродвигателя. Их система имеет полюсы, которые еще называют невыраженными, иными словами это поверхность внутреннего статора, которая сделана очень гладко.

Устройство асинхронного электродвигателя
Для того чтобы сделать потери меньшими, сердечники статоров собирают из тоненьких штамповых стальных листов. Этот уже собранный сердечник нужно закрепит в стальном корпусе. После проделанной работы, закрепляем обмотку из стали в пазах статора. Потом, не забывая правил безопасности, берем фазовые обмотки статора и соединяем их с так называемой «звездою», дальше, опираясь на то, как работают однофазные асинхронные электродвигатели, делаем так, чтобы все конечности обмоток выводились наружу корпуса, где находиться изоляционный щит.

Подобная система и функции устройства, которые позволяют эксплуатировать асинхронный электродвигатель в качестве генератора, очень заинтересовывает любителей электроприборов и всей техники, которая непосредственно связанная с электричеством, что и притягивает к ним интерес покупателей с каждым годом.

Ротор подобен статору, также сложен из штамповых стальных листов. В пазах ротора также должна находиться обмотка, если, конечно же, вы собираетесь что-то делать, используя асинхронную модель.

Что представляют собой технические характеристики трехфазных асинхронных электродвигателей? Некоторые думают, что тут ничего сложного, но не тут то было. Прежде всего, при работе с асинхронным двигателем и всеми его дополнениями нужно желание. Ведь нужно хотеть знать, а вернее запомнить все те несказанно тяжелые термины и различную информацию о данном изобретении человечества.

Для начала, даже тому, кто вообще во всем этом не разбирается, нужно выучить ряд конкретных российских букв, но не простых, а тех которые в свою очередь поясняют то или иное конкретное число измерений или сокращенно объясняют твердения, какого-то термина, важного для работы с асинхронным двигателем.

Внешний вид асинхронного электродвигателя
Рисунок 2. Асинхронный двигатель

Существует несколько сотен разных обозначений, формул вычисления, но для того, чтобы приобрести умения элементарного пользования и вообще представления о применении данного устройства, достаточно обратить внимание на данный рисунок.

Технические характеристики асинхронного двигателя
Рисунок 3. Технические характеристики асинхронного двигателя

Асинхронный двигатель имеет несколько режимов работы:

§ Двигательный режим – это когда ротор становится неподвижным или когда он вращается с частотой, которая ниже синхронной. После чего магнитные поля, которые вращаются, пересекают проводники ротора, тем самым передавая в них электродвижущую силу, под влиянием которой в обмотке ротора появляется электроток.

§ Генераторный режим – это ротор, который разогнули с помощью какого-то другого двигателя до частоты, которая имеет большую частоту вращения магнитного поля, после чего электродвижущая сила меняет свое направления в обмотке, в результате чего асинхронный прибор переходит в режим генератора.

§ Режим холостого хода – это так называемый «холостой ход» асинхронной машины, который возникает когда нагрузки редукторного и рабочего органа не хватает. Также это все можно назвать наглядной демонстрацией примера того, как возникает намагничивание тока в магнитном проводе.

§ Режим электромагнитного тормоза – это тогда, когда начинается меняться направление ротора или магнитного поля. Они начинают вращаться в противоположном направлении, после чего электродвижущая сила и одна из самых активных составляющих тока в обмотке будут перенаправлены с помощью двигательного режима, в результате асинхронное устройство будет использовать из сети небывалую мощность. Но при этом электрически-магнитный момент будет перенаправлен навстречу моменту нагрузки, при этом его приостанавливая.

Итак, можно сказать, что без подобного асинхронного двигателей мы не можем представить себе жизнь, ведь все что мы делаем, используя себе в помощь, различные электрические предметы непосредственно связанные с асинхронными машинами, которые контролируют и их работоспособность. Как стало уже понятно даже самые незначительные и самые мелкие приборы, двигатели, машины которые касаются электричества, все между собой связанные, и даже без такого, незначительного на первый взгляд, товара как асинхронный двигатель грех отказаться, ведь он поможет улучить комфорт.


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