Автомобильный турбокомпрессор

31 июля 2015г. - 10:12 4586 просмотров


Автомобильный турбокомпрессорАвтомобильный турбокомпрессор обеспечивает увеличение давления во впускной системе при помощи применения энергии отработанных газов. За счет его работы вырастает масса воздуха, которая образовывается в камерах сгорания.

Он представляет собой более эффективное устройство для наддува, чем механический турбокомпрессор, потому как не применяет силу двигателя для привода. Тем не менее его использование тоже приводит к определенной потере мощности.

Располагаясь в выпускном тракте данное устройство, создает преграды для движения отработавших газов, которые выходят из цилиндров.

Образующееся противодавление заставляет мотор выполнять огромную работу по очистке цилиндров от различных продуктов сгорания, и тратит на это свою мощность. От применения турбокомпрессора мощность возрастает на 30-40%, поэтому данные потери незначительны.

Главная проблема применения этого устройства отставание изменения выходной силы в ответ на изменение напора отработанных газов, так называемая турбояма или турбозадержка. Основные причины появления турбоямы большие нагрузки на агрегат и силы трения.


Неисправный автомобильный турбокомпрессор
Для того чтобы выявить неисправности турбокомпрессора, необходимо знать его устройство, которое состоит из 3-х основных элементов центрального корпуса, турбины и центробежного компрессора. Турбина помогает преобразовать кинетическую энергию проработавших газов во вращательные движения компрессора. Она связывает турбинное колесо, которое размещено в корпусе специальной формы, так называемую улитку.

Поступая в корпус, отработавшие газы начинают двигаться по его каналу на лопатки турбинного колеса, которое начинает раскручиваться до высокой скорости (250000 об/мин). Данное колесо приварено к валу, передающему вращение на колесо компрессора. Отработавшие газы, проходя сквозь лопасти турбинного колеса, оставляют турбину через центральное отверстие, а потом выводятся в выпускную систему. Турбина используется при очень высоких температурах, поэтому ее элементы сделаны из жаропрочных материалов: корпус из стали, турбинное колесо из железоникелевого сплава.

Установить турбокомпрессор своими руками вполне возможно, но необходимо знать, что во многом его производительность зависит от формы и размера турбины. Считается, что чем турбина больше, тем выше у устройства производительность. Если оно большое, то может принять большее давление от отработанных газов, соответственно может обеспечить большую прибавку мощи. При низких оборотах двигателя наблюдается наиболее частая турбозадержка.

Если турбокомпрессор маленький, то он значительно быстрее может раскрутиться до номинальной скорости, но производительность имеет меньшую. Чтобы регулировать давление наддува устанавливается перепускной клапан в корпус турбины. Клапан подчинен системе управления двигателем и обладает пневматическим приводом.

Центральный корпус предназначен для размещения вала, позволяющий ему с минимальным трением и максимальной скоростью, чтобы не приходилось часто делать ремонт турбокомпрессора. В одном из двух подшипников вращается вал. В качестве подшипников применяются разные конструкции подшипников скольжения, редко шарикоподшипники.

Система смазки двигателя производит смазку вала и подшипников. Масло, проходя через множество каналов, не только смазывает нагретые детали, но и охлаждает их. Турбированные двигатели с искровым зажиганием оснащены центральным корпусом, который включен в систему охлаждения двигателя, благодаря чему можно достичь лучшего охлаждения.

Схема двигателя, включающая автомобильный турбокомпрессор
Центробежный компрессор в спускной системе создает дополнительное давление. Его конструкция аналогична механическому турбокомпрессору и имеет корпус с компрессорным колесом. Движение воздуха осуществляется от центра колеса по всему корпусу. За счет резкого уменьшения скорости потока, диффузор преобразует кинетическую энергию воздуха в давление. Через впускной коллектор сжатый воздух отходит в двигатель. Корпус компрессора и компрессорное колесо производятся из алюминия.

Устройство турбокомпрессора постоянно улучшается для того, чтобы снизить последствия турбозадержки и повысить производительность.

Самыми востребованными техническими решениями считаются:

  • Уменьшение массы турбины при помощи применения более прочных и легких материалов, например керамики;
  • Использование новых конструкций подшипников, которые будут обеспечивать снижение потерь при трении;
  • Раздельный турбокомпрессор;
  • Турбина с изменяемой геометрией, так называемая VNT-турбина.

Раздельная модель оснащена двумя входами для отработанных газов, а также двумя соплами, которые рассчитаны на каждую пару цилиндров. Одно сопло предназначено для быстрого реагирования, в то время как другое обеспечивает максимальную производительность.

Устройство с изменяемой геометрией широко применяется во многих дизельных двигателях, к примеру, в TDI от Volkswagen. В таком агрегате стоит девять подвижных лопастей, которые регулируют поток отработавших газов. Привод регулирует угол наклона лопастей и может увеличивать поток или вообще его заблокировать. На нашем сайте можно всегда подобрать себе нужную модель и ознакомиться со статьями, касающихся таких изделий.


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    One more thing. It’s my opinion that there are a lot of travel insurance websites of respectable companies than enable you to enter your vacation details and obtain you the estimates. You can also purchase the international travel insurance policy on the web by using the credit card. All you should do is always to enter your own travel details and you can view the plans side-by-side. Simply find the plan that suits your capacity to pay and needs and after that use your credit card to buy them. Travel insurance on the web is a good way to search for a dependable company to get international holiday insurance. Thanks for expressing your ideas.

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