Грейферный захват

27 июля 2015г. - 18:06 6906 просмотров


Грейферный захватГрейферы и грейферные захваты, в последнее время, пользуются очень большой популярностью, благодаря своим многофункциональным качествам, сочетающим в себе, надежность, долговечность и практичность.

Само слово «грейфер» произошло от нем. «greifen», что в переводе на русский означает «хватать, захватывать».

Грейферами называют отдельный класс механических приспособлений, предназначенных для агрегирования с подъемными кранами, монорельсовыми тележками, а также с различными видами погрузчиков и тягачей.

Внешне, грейфер представляет собой особый ковш челюстной формы, который имеет собственную, автономную систему, позволяющую управлять погрузочно-разгрузочными процессами.

В качестве груза для грейфера могут быть использованы: сыпучие материалы, крупные цельные блоки, монолитные конструкции, а также металлолом, лесо — и пиломатериалы и строительный мусор.


Канаты обеспечивают процесс смыкания «челюстей» грейферного ковша, а размыкание челюстей происходит в тот момент, когда грейфер находится в подвешенном (активном) состоянии и производится с помощью специальной системы управления, которая расположена в кабине у пилота.

  • По своим конструктивным характеристикам, делятся на: моторные, тросовые и полуавтоматические.
  • По разворотным свойствам делятся на:  поворотные и съемные.
  • По количеству основных канатов: одноканатные, двухканатные, приводные
  • Приводные грейферы, в свою очередь делятся на 2 типа: электромоторные и электрогидравлические, а также нагидравлические и  пневматические.

Исходя из количества челюстей, делятся на: одночелюстные, двухчелюстные и многочелюстные (открытые, закрытые и полузакрытые варианты).

Грейферный захват – это специально разработанный механизм, применяемый для погрузки — разгрузки,  перемещения, транспортировки, монтажа- демонтажа, а также для сортировки различных материалов, в частности пиломатериалов. Представляет собой захватный ковш, движение которого регулируется с помощью специальной гидравлической системы управления. Он способен перемещать также крупногабаритные и длинномерные материалы.

Конструкция грейферного захвата
Кроме этого, эти захваты используются, если необходимо: извлечь и переместить крупнофракционные материалы, выгрузить или загрузить песок, щебень, гравий и др. сыпучие материалы, а также в процесс разработки грунтов и оснований под фундаменты.

Преимущественно, они делятся на: захваты для леса и захваты для бревен.

Грейферный захват для леса

Представляют собой захватный ковш, который предназначен для подъема, погрузки/выгрузки, лесоматериалов, а также в случаях, если необходимо произвести штабелевку древесины или лесного массива, сбросить пиломатериалы на конкретную, заранее размеченную площадку или в воду и для укладки «шапок».

Захваты для леса бывают следующих видов: захваты клещевого типа, захваты эксцентрикового типа, захваты вилочного и захваты зажимного типов.

Некоторые виды грейферных захватов для леса предназначаются для определенных видов лесоматериалов, в зависимости от сорта древесины, или же для различного размера и веса сортимента.

Грейферный захват для леса
Грейферный захват для бревен

Как видно из названия, данный тип грейферов идеально подходит для транспортировки круглого сортамента, и, в отличие от грейферного захвата для леса, может иметь иной  приводной механизм.

Исходя из модели используемого экскаватора или другой базовой машины,  можно выбрать необходимый тип захвата для бревен. К примеру, в настоящее время, большой популярностью пользуются грейферы, у которых, практически, отсутствует момент раскачивания; это достигается за счет того, что стрела грейферного захвата плотно зафиксирована в неподвижном положении.

Все это вкупе позволяет совершать более точные и размеченные захваты и движения, что, в конечном счете, дает свой результат в более эффективной работе, при которой прикладывается относительно небольшое количество усилий.

Основные технические характеристики грейферного захвата для бревен:

  • Раскрытие челюстей — 1100мм.
  • Ширина, на которую раскрывается челюсть- 810 мм.
  • Рабочий вес конструкции- 0,7 т.
  • Вес экскаватора (без грейфера)- 15-20 т.


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