Медные электроды

30 июля 2015г. - 16:43 3947 просмотров


Медные электроды Сварка чугуна, произведенная с помощью медножелезных электродов, представлена механической смесью меди с железоуглеродным сплавом. Такая комбинация в свою очередь соединяется с основным металлом с помощью кристаллов стали и диффузии меди о микроскопические поры чугунного изделия. Данный процесс объясняется нерастворимостью меди и железа.

Сама структура металла шва имеет двухфазовую систему, которая включает железоуглеродистый сплав с медью. Соотношение меди к углероду влияет на обработку шва.

По мере того, как увеличивается количество шва металла, увеличивается и количество углерода, выделенного из расплавленного чугунного изделия. В связи с этим, повышается твердость металла шва.

Исследования, в процессе которых нам медными электродами ставились опыты, показали, что лучшим соотношением меди и железа в сплаве является: железо — от 5 до 10%, медь — от 90 до 95%. Данный тип сплава очень прочен, а его обрабатываемость вполне удовлетворяет всем требованиям.

Укрупненное изображение медных электродов
Медные электроды в промышленности для процесса сварки используются сравнительно давно.


Различают ряд методов выработки электродов:

  • Применение медного стержня с жестяной оплеткой, предварительно смазанной стабилизующей обмазкой.
  • Использование медного стержня со стабилизирующей обмазкой в железной трубке
  • Использование электрода из биметаллической проволоки.
  • Применение пучка электродов во взаимодействии с медными и стальными стержнями.
  • Использование медного стрежня с мраморной обмазкой.
  • Наконец, введение плавикового шпата и его погружение в обмазку железного порошка.

Механический способ для всех выше указанных электродов является не подходящим. За исключением последнего электрода. Отличные показатели дает электрод маркировки 034 1. Дело в том, что порошок из железа, добавленный в покрытие, создает равномерную сетку железа на медной основе.

Полученный сплав вязок, его можно подвергать проковке и обрабатывать с легкостью Можно попробовать механический способ при разделке под сварку. Сварка осуществляется не полностью в один раз, а частями по 30-50 мм на каждый участок, при постоянном токе с обратной полярностью. Сварку проводят в несколько слоев, которые потом необходимо тщательно проверить.

Все медные электроды классифицируются по следующим типам:

Медно-сульфатный электрод сравнения  направлен для того чтобы измерить разность потенциалов между землей и подземным металлическим сооружением, который защищен с помощью катодной поляризации. По маркировке различают электроды сравнения СМЭС-1, СМЭС-2. Электрод  СМЭС необходим для того, чтобы провести измерения в режиме температуры 0-55 градусов рабочей среды.

Корпус медно-сульфатного электрода изготовлен с помощью пористой керамики, которая благоприятно сказывается на создании и поддержке электролитического контакта с грунтом. Заполняют корпус купоросом. В него помещаю медный спиральный электрод. Свободное пространство между корпусами  заполняют  влагоустойчивой засыпкой с примесью бетонита. Это способствует возникновению электролитического контакта между модулем и грунтом.

Медь для изготовления электродов 
Электрод медно-графитовый

Медно графитовые электроды используются в дуговых печах. Они нужны для выплавки легированных, малоуглеродистых сталей, специальных сплавов и сплавов, содержащих железо. Кроме того, графитовые электроды используют для того, чтобы выплавлять сталь, цветные металлы. Графитовые электроды находят свое применение при дуговой резке металлов на чугунолитейном производстве. Данный тип сварочного материала готовят из нефтяного кокса, а также из камнеугольного песка. Этот вид электродов отличает от других их термоустойчивость, низкая степень содержания золы.

Для сваривания чугуна применяют электроды с никелевой и медной основой.  Молекулярные свойства этих двух материалов позволяют сделать сварочный метал шва более пластичным и защищает его от трещин. Определяют электроды два сварки чугуна по химическому составу.

  • Электроды для сварки медных проводов
  • Холодная сварка выполняется при помощи следующих типов электродов
  • Чугунных электродов с толстым покрытием
  • Стальными низкоуглеродистыми со стабилизирующими покрытиями
  • Электродами из никеле-медного сплава
  • Медными электродами

Сварка чугунными электродами

Различают два основных вида чугуна: белый, серый. Белый чугун добывается с помощью большой скорости остужения отливок. Они характеризуются повышенной твердостью и в то же время хрупкостью. Именно поэтому они редко используются в производстве производственных деталей механизма, а также поступают для переделки в стальной материал.

Серый чугун в своем составе имеет высокое количество такого химического элемента, как кремний. Кремний, в свою очередь, идет на графитизацию углерода. Эти чугуны добываются с помощью замедленного охлаждения отливок. По своим свойствам они мягче и хрупкие. Из серого чугуна производят детали машин.

Сварка используется в основном для ремонта чугунных изделий, а также для исправления некоторых дефектов, которые добываются в процессе литья, заварки трещин, в процессе эксплуатации изделий.

Чугунные электроды 
Сварка чугуна намного сложнее, чем сварка стали. Для того, чтобы получить хорошее сварочное соединение процессе сварки чугуна, нужно применить наиболее сложную технологию сварки, намного сложнее, чем если бы это была сварка легированной стали

Холодная сварки с применением чугунных электродов не особо цениться, так как приносит далеко не самые хорошие результата. Дело в том, что наплавленный металл эти электродом имеет при себе отбеленную структуру и очень много мелких трещин. Что касается примкнутых друг к другу швов, то их вовсе невозможно подвергать механической обработке простым инструментом.

Некоторые производства стали создавать специальные покрытия для этих электродов. За счет использования таких покрытий в сварке, шов и переходная зона получают структуру серого чугуна, не содержащую каких-то шлаковых и газовых включений. Эти покрытия и особая технология сварки направлены на понижения скорости охлаждения швов. Кроме того, важно, что в шов были введены элементы, направленные на графитизацию углеродов, то есть на добычу структуры серого углерода.

Электроды для сварки медных проводов представлены угольными стержнями. Отличным решением становятся омедненные графитовые электроды. Их можно купить в специальных магазинах сварочного оборудования. Кроме того, вместо них можно применить графитовый стержень старой батарейки или щетки коллекторного двигателя.

Виды медных электродов 
Трубчатые медные электроды предназначены для электроэрозионной скоростной прошивки отверстий, диаметр которых составляет 0,3-2 мм.

Их преимущества заключаются в следующем:

  • Во-первых, в максимальной глубине обработки.
  • Во-вторых, в низком удельном электрическом сопротивлении материала электрода.
  • В-третьих, в жесткой конструкции электрода.
  • А также в оптимальной длине электрода, которая определяется по характеристикам оборудования, а в данном случае, по станку.

Технические характеристики медных электродов 
 


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