Пропановый редуктор

16 июля 2015г. - 10:25 6027 просмотров


Пропановый редуктор

Все газовые редукторы являются устройствами, которые понижают давление газа до рабочих параметров. Одновременно (независимо от величины давления в баллоне) они автоматически поддерживают этот показатель на постоянном уровне.

Маркирование устройств, предназначенных для регулирования газовых смесей.

Маркируются газовые редукторы (ГОСТ 13861-89) по следующему принципу:

По используемому рабочему газу:


  • (А) — ацетиленовые,
  • (В) — водородные,
  • (К) — кислородные,
  • (П) — пропан-бутановые,
  • (М) — метановые;

 

По месту установки:

  • (Б) — баллонные,
  • (Р) — рамповые,
  • (С) — сетевые;

 

По способу редуцирования рабочего давления:

  • (О) — пружинные одноступенчатые,
  • (Д) — пружинные двухступенчатые,
  • (З) — пневматические одноступенчатые.

 

Широкий спектр маркировок связан с техническими и технологическими особенностями каждого устройства. Отличительным признаком, позволяющим различать области применения, будет и окраска корпуса (например, редукторы пропановые имеют красный цвет, кислородные – синий). Двухступенчатые отличаются от одноступенчатых наличием двух камер высокого давления, которые располагаются последовательно и через них происходит постепенное понижение давления.

Присоединительные устройства всех редукторов отличаются по способу крепления к емкости с газом. Ацетиленовые крепятся с помощью хомутов. Остальные — с использованием накидных гаек. Редукторы для горючих газов имеют накидные гайки с левой резьбой. На соединительных штуцерах баллонов с кислородом и инертными газами имеется правая резьба. Это позволяет не перепутать при присоединении редукторы для негорючих и горючих газов.

Еще одной важной характеристикой будет принципиальная схема действия. Наиболее широкое применение получили редукторы обратного действия: по мере расходования газа из баллона давление понижается, но рабочее давление на выходе от редуктора повышается. В устройствах с прямым действием рабочее давление находится в прямой взаимосвязи с давлением газа в баллоне. Понижается давление в емкости с газом — наблюдается и некоторое понижение рабочего давления.

Все вышеназванные устройства получили самое широкое распространение в различных отраслях промышленности и в быту. В промышленности они применяются при любых газопламенных работах (газорезка и газосварка, пайка), в строительстве — при укладке битума, в бытовых условиях — при пользовании газовыми плитами и обогревателями, с подводом газа от баллона или газовой сети.

Рассмотрим технические характеристики двух бытовых пропановых редукторов.

Газовый пропановый редуктор

 

Редуктор БПО-5-4                                                                                                        Редуктор БПО-5-5

Технические характеристики.

БПО-5-4 БПО-5-5
Редуцируемый (рабочий) газ пропан пропан
Наибольшая пропускная способность, м3 / час 5 5
Наибольшее давление на входе, МПа 2,5 2,5
Наибольшее рабочее давление, МПа 0,3 0,3
Контроль рабочего давления манометр манометр
Масса (не более), кг 1,6 0,7

Бытовые пропановые редукторы имеют приборы (манометры), которые позволяют контролировать давление газа на выходе. Контроль давления газа на входе не предусмотрен. Все неметаллические материалы (уплотнители) должны соответствовать ГОСТу 9.030. Изготавливаются они из резинотканевого материала. Для отбора газа предусмотрен ниппель, присоединяемый к редуктору с помощью накидной гайки. Редукторы пропановые БПО-5-5 имеют универсальные ниппели для присоединения рукавов с диаметрами 6 мм и 9 мм.

Принцип действия газовых редукторов выглядит следующим образом. Устройство соединяется с баллоном накидной гайкой. Через входной фильтр пропан попадает в камеру с высоким давлением. Регулировочный винт имеет общее соединение с нажимной пружиной, нажимным диском, регулировочной мембраной и толкателем. Вращательное усилие (по часовой стрелке) передается через нажимную пружину на редуцирующий клапан. Он перемещается и открывает зазор между седлом и клапаном. Через этот зазор газ попадает непосредственно в рабочую камеру.

Исправность редукторов.

Любой используемый редуктор должен иметь:

  1. Товарный знак. Ставится на предприятии-изготовителе.
  2. Марка редуктора. Согласно ГОСТу 13861-89 Редукторы для газопламенной обработки.
  3. Год выпуска.

Правила безопасности.

Перед использованием устройство осматривается на наличие внешних повреждений — трещин и вмятин на корпусе. Также к неисправностям относится неплотное примыкание накидной гайки. Несвоевременное выполнение очередного испытания или отсутствие такого можно узнать по клейму на редукторе. Более тщательно осматривается манометр. Запрещается использование приборов с разбитым стеклом. О явной неисправности манометра будет говорить неподвижная стрелка, даже при подаче газовой смеси. Цвет редукторов должен соответствовать цвету корпуса баллона. Шкала манометра имеет красную, хорошо различимую черту. Она соответствует максимальному рабочему давлению. Недопустимо повышение рабочих показателей выше указанного чертой.

После присоединения устройства к баллону проверяется герметичность всех соединений. Уровень рабочего давления устанавливается по показаниям манометра. Устройство также проверяется на самотек. Ежегодные испытания редукторов проводятся на испытательных стендах. Самостоятельно пользователю оценить состояние устройства невозможно.


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