Шнур ШАОН

30 июля 2015г. - 17:29 5814 просмотров


Шнур ШАОНМаркировка шнура ШАОН говорит о его отношении к разряду общего значения.

Основные свойства и качества:

  • Гибкость
  • Противовибрационная устойчивость
  • Теплоизоляция
  • Уплотнение
  • Невосприимчивость к высоким температурам.

Все эти свойства и определили специфику применения материала. Размер, диаметр шнура, колеблется в пределах 3-35 мм. Все шнуры для поставки размещаются в бухтах весом в 12-25 кг.

Структура

Как правило, асбестовый шнур ШАОН изготавливается из хризолитового асбеста. Второстепенным сырьем являются волокна из хлопка и ряд других химических продуктов. ГОСТ определил два вида по строению шнура – это шнур с сердечником и шнур без сердечника. Шнур с сердечником изготовлен из крученых нитей, а поверх него наносится хризолитового асбоволокна или пряжи. Диаметр волокна достигает 15-25 мм. Размер диаметра шнура без сердечника чуть ли не в два раза меньше – 8 мм. В производстве шнур без сердечника изготавливается путем скручивания однониточной пряжи, а по форме – цилиндр.


 

Внешний вид шнура ШАОН
Внешний вид

Внешний вид непосредственно определяет ГОСТ 1779-83. Что он подразумевает? Нельзя допускать поврежденные нити, разрыв, расслоение на поверхности шнура. Кроме того, если сердечник изделия выходит из-под верхних нитей, то тогда такой шнур на практике не пригоден. Однако, возможно присутствие нитяных концов, длина которого 25 мм. Эти концы образуются в процессии связывания нитей. Поскольку шнур гибкий, то его можно сгибать и разгибать, растягивать, свивать и производить ряд других операций. После всего этого, шнур спокойно без препятствий возвращается в свою форму. То есть, качество определяется после успешно выполненных операций и опытов. Каждый из ГОСТов имеет сертификат на асбестовый шнур.

Сфера использования

Сфера применения широка. Шнуры ШАОН используются в теплоизоляции трубопроводных систем, в уплотнении газовых аппаратов, оборудования, узлов машин. Мало того, шнур используется для того, чтобы уплотнить соединения в теплоагрегатах.

Как уже было отмечено, различают две категории асбестового шнура – это ШАОН и ШАП.

Асбест как материал представлен тонковолокнистым минералом из разряда силикатов волокнистой структуры. С виду асбест похож на шерсть и хлопок. Однако в отличии от текстильного материала, он не горит и держит тепло. Именно поэтому асбест широко применим в производстве.

Требования к асбестовым шнурам ШАОН и ШАП соотнесены с ГОСТом 1779-83. Этот государственный стандарт применим ко всем асбошнурам, используемым в целях теплоизоляции и уплотнении неподвижного механизма агрегатов.

Способы производства асбестового шнура:

  • Накручивание  асбестовой пряжи из асбестовой ровницы на сердечник
  • Накручивание волокон без сердечника

Да данный момент общее количество видов асбошнура составляет «тройку»: ШАОН, ШАП (пуховый), ШАГ (газогенераторный)

По строению принято говорить о двух типах

  1. Шнур без сердечника. Такой шнур с диаметром 8 мм имеет форму цилиндра с несколькими слоями однониточной пряжи, перекрученной вместе. Кроме того, шнур и однониточная пряжа закручивается в разные стороны.
  2. Шнур с сердечником. Диаметр такого шнура составляется 10-25 мм.

Качество асбошнура определяется по отсутствию разрывных нитей, расслаивания, изгибов. Те, асбестовые шнуры ШАОН, которые используются в тропиках, в своей основе имеют лавсановые и асбестовые волокна.

Как в условном обозначении определить значение диаметра?

Шнур асбестовый ШАОН 5 ГОСТ 1779-83, где 5 – это диаметр.

Шнур асбестовый ШАОН-Т 5 ГОСТ 1779-83, где Т – обозначение для тропической среды.

Бухта шнура асбестового ШАОН
Каждый асбестовый шнур конкретной марки должен быть обозначен специальным штрих-кодом и сопровожден документом, свидетельствующем об эксплуатационных характеристиках, товарном знаке, изготовителе, номере партии, марке, наименовании, параметрах, дате изготовления, массу шнура, указание ГОСТа, результаты по применению асбошнура на практике.

Доставка партии осуществляется в специально для этого предназначенных бухтах, которые вмещают в себя от одного до трех отрезков шнуров. Минимальная длина асбошнура – 3 м, а максимальный объем – 5 кг, в то время как, масса бухты равно 60 кг. Все асбестовые шнуры обертывают  в специальную бумагу, можно мешочную, пленку из полиэтилена. Кроме того, можно хранить асбестовые шнуры в бумажных мешках. При транспортировке партии должны храниться в закрытых контейнерах. Срок хранения – 10 лет.

Международная классификация:

  • Плетеный с квадратным сечением
  • Плетеный с круглым сечением
  • Шнур с обратным плетением
  • Крученый шнур

Разница в нитях по содержанию асбеста в шнуре ШАОН:

Марка нити ШАОН А В С
Содержание асбеста в шнуре ШАОН, не менее, % 99,6 97,5 93 86 83 75
Потеря веществ при прокаливании ШАОН, % 16 16,1-19 19,1-24 24,1-28 28,1-32 32,1-35
Рабочая температура шнура асбестового ШАОН, 0С 550 450 400 350 300 250

 


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