Скребковый конвейер

22 июля 2015г. - 17:07 10238 просмотров


Скребковый конвейерСкребковые конвейеры широко распространены во многих отраслях экономики, особенно в угольной промышленности.

Принцип работы этих транспортеров заключается в перемещении груза скребками в неподвижном желобе, по которому движется рабочий приводной орган с закрепленными на нем скребками.

Скребковые конвейеры применяются в тех случаях, когда перемещаются кусковые грузы, зернистые и пылевидные. Эти конвейеры по принципу перемещения груза и конструктивным отличиям делятся на два типа.

К первому типу можно отнести собственно скребковые конвейеры, которые еще называются конвейерами с высокими скребками:

Рис.1

Рис.1

При использовании таких конвейеров (Рис.1) сыпучий или кусковой груз загружается через загрузочную воронку в желоб. Рабочим органом обычно является нижняя часть привода, в некоторых случаях — верхняя, иногда обе сразу. В обязательном порядке желоб должен иметь контур сечения такой же, как конфигурация скребков — прямоугольный, полукруглый, трапецеидальный. Скребки применяются штампованные или литые, а желоба изготовляют из металла.


Скребковый конвейер по сравнению с пластинчатыми имеет меньший вес, его можно загружать и разгружать в любом месте, где проложен желоб конвейера. Скорость  транспортирования груза  скребковым конвейером от 0,5 до 1,0 м/сек, пропускная способность от 50 до 350 т/ч. Такие конвейеры, как правило, применяют при необходимости перемещать груз на расстояние до 100 м.

Ко второму типу (Рис.2) относятся конвейеры, работающие по принципу сплошного волочения, или, как их еще называют, конвейеры с погружаемыми скребками. В них груз передвигается непрерывным потоком, а не  порционно цепочкой скребков, заполняющих часть сечения желоба.

Рис. 2

Рис. 2

Конвейеры с погружными скребками очень удобны на транспортировании пылевидных, порошкообразных, зернистых и мелкокусковые (максимальный размер куска до 15 мм) насыпных грузах.

При использовании конвейеров с погружными скребками транспортирование груза обеспечивается тем, что возникающее сопротивление проходящему скребку сквозь сыпучий груз, заполняющий желоб с гладкими стенками, оказывается выше силы трения груза о стенки и дно желоба.

Скребковыми конвейерами с погружными скребками лучше пользоваться там, где необходима транспортировка грузов, которые, не подвержены измельчению или такие, когда их измельчение и дробление не снижают их качество. Если конвейером с погруженными скребками перемещается кусковой груз, то эти куски должны быть малой прочности, так как прочные куски могут попадать между скребком и желобом  заклиниваться, создавая высокое сопротивление.

Есть еще один вид скребковых конвейеров – это скребковые цепные конвейеры. Отличительной чертой таких конвейеров является то, что тяговое усилие в них создается одной или двумя цепями.

У этих конвейеров герметичные короба, чаще всего  их используют  пищевая, химическая, целлюлозно-бумажная, деревообрабатывающая, металлургическая промышленности, в литейном производстве и в производстве строительных материалов, ими пользуются  энергетика,  железнодорожный и водный транспорт.

Конвейеры такого типа используют при перемещении сыпучих материалов в закрытых, пыленепроницаемых помещениях. Тяговым органом в этих конвейерах является цепь  или две цепи со скребками. На конвейере можно производить комплектацию различными цепями с учетом характера перемещаемого груза и расчетного тягового усилия.

Цепи используются различной конструкции – это может быть пластинчатая цепь (выдерживает испытания на разрыв до 90 тонн), кованная вильчатая цепь и круглозвенная. В серийном производстве выпускаются для таких конвейеров скребки  двух видов: из стали с полимерными накладками и из стали,  с дополнительными накладками, для изготовления которых используется износостойкая жаропрочная сталь.

Для полимерных скребков используют чаще всего капролон или фторопласт толщиной от 6 до 10 мм. Это, пожалуй, самые устойчивые материалы, они не подвергаются истиранию и стойки к химически активным веществам.

В качестве примера можно привести скребковый конвейер сп 202 , который применяют в шахтах, доставляя уголь, горную массу и  другие материалы из участков горных выработок при грузопотоке до 250т/ч, из очистных забоев, где проводятся работы по комбайновой широкозахватной или буровзрывной выемке, когда пласты достигают мощность не менее 0,8м.

Рис.3  Скребковый конвейер сп 202

Рис.3  Скребковый конвейер сп 202

Рассматривая устройство скребкового конвейера, следует отметить, что оно во всех вариантах предусматривает использование закрытых металлических коробов прямоугольного сечения, с максимальным использованием типовых узлов, позволяющих свободно  двигаться замкнутой цепи, или другому рабочему органу, оснащенному скребками. В комплекте скребкового конвейера должны быть включены разгрузочные, приводные и натяжные секции.

Привод монтируется на самостоятельной раме, его можно устанавливать и слева, и справа по направлению движения груза. Загружается конвейер через загрузочные бункера, которые можно расположить по длине желоба там, где это необходимо во время эксплуатации.

Разгружаются конвейеры с использованием постоянно открытого отверстия в приводной секции.


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