Сварка неплавящимся электродом

30 июля 2015г. - 17:26 4684 просмотров


Сварка неплавящимся электродомВо время сварки неплавящимся электродом в защитном газе в зону дуги, которая разгорается между неплавящимся электродом и изделием, поступает защитный газ, предотвращающий нежелательные воздействия активных газов. Кромки изделия расправляются за счет теплоты дуги. В итоге, весь расправленный металл в результате кристаллизации образует характерный сварной шов.Сам же неплавящийся электрод производят из графита, вольфрама меди и т.д.

Указанный выше защитный газ по своим характеристикам должен быть инертным по отношению к металлу электрода и металлу, подвергающемуся сварки.

Схема сварки неплавящимся электродом
В виде защитного газа может выступать как аргон, гелий, так и комбинация этих двух химических элементов. Кроме того, для сварки меди используется еще и азот. Поэтому, чтобы правильно расходовать инертный газ, лучше создать комбинированную защиту, указанную на рисунке.

 

Схема сварки неплавящимся электродом с комбинированной защитой
 


Преимущества сварки неплавящимся материалом:

  • Повышенная степень устойчивости дуги
  • Вероятность добычи металла шва при доли участия главного металла 0-100%
  • Перемена в скорости подачи под углом наклона, который тоже меняется, изменение профиля и марки, можно контролировать текущие изменения химического состава металла шва.

 

Схема сварки неплавящимся электродом с присадкой
 

Минусы метода сварки неплавящим электродом:

  • Не эффективность применения электросилы
  • Острая потребность в специальных устройствах для первостепенного возбуждения дуги
  • Очень высокая скорость охлаждения соединения.

Различают несколько способов сварки неплавящим электродом. Так, например, сварка графитовым электродом. Графитовые электроды используются активно в  электротермических установках, предназначенные для выплавлавки  стали, чугуна, цветного металла и сплава. Эти электроды подводят электрический ток в печь. Комплектация электродов осуществляется ниппелями. Гнезда ниппелей установлены по двум концам графитового электрода. Благодаря этому электроды при непосредственном взаимодействии друг с другом подают в печь ток.

Еще одной областью применения графитовых электродов становится чугунолитейное производство, где необходимо выполнять дуговую резку металлов.

Сварка неплавящим вольфрамовым электродом применяет тепло, которое возникает в момент возгорания дуги в пределах между электродом и металлом. Температура в процессе поджига может подниматься до отметки 19500 градусов. При сварке данный электрод крепится  в устройстве, проводящем ток в горелке. К этой горелке по шлагам спускается защитный газ. Вытекающая из сопел, струя аргона отделяет воздушную струю от электрода, дуги и сварочной ванны.

Что касается сварки чугуна электродами, то для этого используются сварочные электроды уони. Наиболее распространены электроды уони 13/55 и 13/45. Благодаря устойчивым электродам, при сварке чугуна не образуются трещины. Кроме того, они защищают материал от коррозии, негативного воздействия морской воды, повышения давления и температуры.


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