Реле напряжения генератора

29 июля 2015г. - 12:01 4083 просмотров


Реле напряжения генератораРеле регуляторы напряжения предназначены для защиты генераторов и управления ними. Применяется реле напряжения генератора в электросети автомобилей, тракторов, автобусов, троллейбусов и трамваев с напряжением 28 В. Некоторые модели с успехом используются на береговых установках и судах. Электродвигатели и трансформаторы защищают прибор от недопустимых изменений напряжения в сети во всех фазах. Существуют модели, предназначенные для контроля напряжения в одной фазе.

В конструкции реле предусмотрены: таймер для того, чтобы была возможность задерживать время срабатывания защиты, светодиоды, монтажные отверстия для его крепления на монтажной панели.

Гарантийный срок эксплуатации или хранения этого устройства идентичен гарантийному сроку эксплуатации автомобиля или другого объекта, на котором он устанавливается. Обычно он составляет три года. Гарантийный срок реле напряжения генератора, как запчасти – один год с момента продажи.

Как правило, основным источником электроэнергии в любом транспортном средстве является генератор. Напряжение, которое вырабатывает генератор, напрямую зависит от оборотов коленчатого вала двигателя. Допустимое значение, в пределах которого должно находится вырабатываемое напряжение — около 14 В. Ротор двигателя вращается так, что обороты его не постоянны. Потому при увеличении или уменьшении частоты его вращения, ток в обмотке возбуждения необходимо регулировать и поддерживать величину номинального. Для этих целей используются реле регулятор напряжения генератора. Регуляторы бывают трех видов.

1. Контактные регуляторы напряжения или вибрационные (электромагнитные).


Схема простейших регуляторов напряжения
Простейшие регуляторы напряжения: а — контактные; б — контактно-транзисторные; в — бес­контактные

В таких регуляторах изменение тока происходит вследствие периодического включения в цепь дополнительного резистора. Когда обороты коленчатого вала малы, напряжение генератора меньше, чем необходимо для сработки устройства, контакты электромагнитной модели замкнуты, и ток поступает в обмотку мимо резистора. Когда обороты ротора увеличиваются, соответственно увеличивается напряжение генератора и когда напряжение превысит допустимое, срабатывает защита, и контакты размыкаются. Благодаря тому, что ток проходит через дополнительный резистор, напряжение уменьшается. При помощи пружины контакты вновь замкнуться после снижения величины напряжения до нормальных показателей. Так, на протяжении времени работы генератора контакты размыкаются и замыкаются. Происходит это довольно часто, но колебания напряжения на практике не заметны.

2. Бесконтактные регуляторы напряжения (рис. в).

В конструкции этих регуляторов электромагнитное реле заменено стабилитроном. Это полупроводниковое измерительное устройство. При повышении напряжения до критической величины ток проходит через стабилитрон, и входной транзистор. Выходной транзистор запирается до приведения напряжения к номинальной величине. Процесс, как и в первом случае, многократно повторяется. Благодаря этому напряжение генератора остается на одном уровне.


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