Ремонт электродвигателей

30 июля 2015г. - 9:23 4227 просмотров


Ремонт электродвигателейЛюбое оборудование рано или поздно выходит из строя. Электродвигатели, какие бы по надежности и прочности они не были, через определенное время эксплуатации начинают проявлять не свойственные им признаки: шумно работать, перегреваться.

Причины, по которым эти агрегаты могут выйти из строя, самые разнообразные: не соблюдение правил эксплуатации, недопустимо высокие температуры или их перепад, сильная загрязненность места работы или обычные механические повреждения. Выход из строя также может быть вызван попаданием постороннего предмета внутрь конструкции, ослаблением обмоток, выходом из строя подшипников. Поломка этого устройства может случиться очень неожиданно.

Чтобы избежать этого, нужно проводить плановые (профилактические) ремонты электродвигателей.

Устранение наиболее часто встречающихся поломок рассмотрим на примере моделей до 100 кВт. В данном случае возможен ремонт электродвигателей своими руками. В первую очередь необходимо снять защитный кожух, который обычно крепиться болтами.

После этого нужно откинуть и саму крыльчатку, затем определить, есть ли люфт в подшипниках. Для того чтобы проверить, следует и передние, и задние подшипники поднять и опустить вал довольно резкими движениями. Если подшипники вышли из строя, то люфт будет очень ощутим. Люфт нужно проверить и в горизонтальном положении. Еще один вид диагностики это включение агрегата без нагрузок и приборов охлаждения.


Для того чтобы подготовить устройство к дальнейшему ремонту, необходимо отключить его от сети. Теперь придется задействовать небольшое оборудование для ремонта электродвигателей. Для снятия муфты используют съемник, который показан на рисунке ниже.

Съемник для ремонта двигателей
Далее требуется осмотреть боковые крышки корпуса на наличие загрязнений от смазки. Такие загрязнения нужно вытереть сразу, чтобы не занести загрязнения на обмотки статора. На следующем этапе откручиваются болты, которыми крепятся крышки. Затем легкими постукиваниями молотком, очень аккуратно, чтобы не обломать отверстия для крепления, снимается крышку.

Должен открыться ротор. Его можно либо вытаскивать, либо производить ремонт, не вынимая его из конструкции. Все зависит от модификации и типа двигателя. Не снимая ротора, обычно проводят ремонтные работы на моделях мощностью 17 кВт. И все-таки, если ротор необходимо снять, это делается с помощью двух труб, которые надеваются на вал ротора. Ротор необходимо извлекать очень аккуратно, чтобы не повредить обмотку статора.

Далее с помощью все того же съемника снимаются подшипники. Все загрязнения от смазки, которая может попасть и на обмотку статора, удаляется с помощью авиационного керосина. После того, как все загрязнения удалены, обмотку статора хорошо просушивают. Сушку обмотки можно производят с помощью лампочки или калорифера, только параметры сопротивления в обмотке постоянно замеряют.

Разбор электродвигателя
Так должен выглядеть электродвигатель в разобранном виде.

Одна из довольно неприятных поломок, которая может обнаружиться когда посадка подшипника на валу прослаблена. Подшипник просто проворачивается. Чинят такую поломку наплавлением на вал материала с помощью электросварки. Затем вал протачивают на токарном станке.

Но такое решение проблемы подходит только для моделей с мощностью до 100 кВт и подшипников качения. Если устройство в аварийном состоянии проработало какое-то время, при этом не сработала тепловая защита, бандаж обмотки может быть поврежден. Поврежденный бандаж снимают и делают новый. В конце нужно обязательно нанести слой мебельного или паркетного лака, так увязка приклеится к обмоткам и не будет болтаться во время работы.

После выполнения всех вышеперечисленных операций агрегат начинают собирать. Делают все в обратном порядке. Подшипники на вал надеваются разогретые. Для этого существует специальное приспособление, такое как показано на рисунке:

Оборудование для ремонта электродвигателей
Такой трансформатор можно также сделать своими руками.

Надев подшипники, на место возвращается передняя крышка таким образом, чтобы подшипник полностью зашел в гнездо. Потом разогретую полумуфту надеваем на свое место и вставляем на место ротор. Потом одевается вторая крышка или сразу две, только обязательно симметрично, и затягиваются болты.

Когда болты затянуты, нужно провернуть вал рукой. Если будут перекосы, то вал не сможет крутиться свободно, будет подтормаживать. Подтягиванием болтов достигается его свободное вращение, и только после этого можно закреплять электродвигатель и делать пробный запуск. При пробном пуске вал может немного постукивать в свои торцы, но после того, как он ляжет на свое место, стук прекратиться. Это можно определить на слух.

Тогда можно устройство оставить поработать несколько минут, не подключая охлаждение или обкатать. Качество поставленных подшипников легко прослушивается. После этого ремонт можно считать оконченным. Можно выполнить покраску, если это необходимо, ведь пока нет кожуха, красить все детали будет очень удобно.

Ремонт промышленных моделей, например асинхронных, производится на специальных электроремонтных предприятиях. Ремонт асинхронных электродвигателей должен проводиться только профессионалами на специальном оборудовании после проведения целого ряда испытаний и замеров.

Ремонт асинхронного электродвигателя
Особенно серьезен для таких электродвигателей капитальный ремонт. По всем техническим характеристикам они после капитального ремонта не должны уступать новым. Ремонт может быть произведен как в стационарных условиях, так и на месте установки устройства. Все агрегаты, которые подлежат ремонту, проходят три вида испытаний. Операционные испытания — это испытания, которые делаются в начале ремонта и на его этапах. Приемо-сдаточные испытания выполняются после окончания капитального ремонта.

Когда двигатель поступает на ремонт, необходимо определить, какие детали и узлы машины вышли из строя, либо уже являются дефектными и требуют замены. Для этого проводятся предремонтные испытания. На каждой стадии делаются определенные замеры, чтобы выявить дефекты в ремонте либо бракованные запчасти и материалы. Понятно, что в процессе ремонта заметить их и исправить ошибки и легче, и дешевле.

Приемо-сдаточные испытания проходят обычно те аппараты, у которых в ходе ремонта не изменилась мощность или частота вращения. Те машины, у которых эти параметры были изменены, проходят типовые испытания. Другими словами, те, которые поступили для ремонта электродвигателей без заводских щитков и готовы для пользования с номинальными данными, полученными при расчетах, которые выполнила ремонтная организация.

Не менее сложен и кропотлив ремонт высоковольтных электродвигателей. Так как этот тип работает при очень высоких напряжениях, то и требования к качеству изоляционных материалов очень высокие. Изоляция должна выдерживать высокие температуры, иметь высокую электрическую и механическую прочность.

Часто ремонт высоковольтных моделей производится на месте установки. Чтобы избежать простоя оборудования, ремонт можно произвести только частично. Заменить и перемотать только вышедшие из строя части агрегата.

Частичный ремонт электродвигателя
К ремонту тяговых электродвигателей также предъявляются свои специфические требования. Поскольку тяговые устройства применяются в общественном транспорте (поезда метро, троллейбусы), то их внезапный выход из строя может повлечь за собой непоправимые последствия.

Поэтому благоразумней производить технические осмотры и плановые ремонтные работы заблаговременно. Перед проведением текущего ремонта агрегат необходимо обработать сжатым воздухом. Затем производится наружный осмотр. Проверяют исправность замков, крепления болтов, кожухов зубчатой передачи и т.д.

Для осмотра внутренних узлов существуют коллекторные люки. Поверхность этих люков перед открытием тщательно чистят от загрязнений. После открытия люка осматривают все видимые детали и узлы двигателя. Коллектор должен иметь блестящую полированную поверхность, не иметь царапин и подгаров. Если коллектор поврежден, необходимо найти причину этого повреждения. Затем проверяют щеточный аппарат.


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