Стабилизатор напряжения 12 вольт

30 июля 2015г. - 9:14 7446 просмотров


Стабилизатор напряжения 12 вольтАвтомобилисты часто задаются вопросом, как защитить в автомобиле электропотребители, которые питаются напряжением. Выход из строя стабилизатора напряжения 12 вольт, который установлен в генераторе, может вывести из строя дорогостоящую автомобильную магнитолу или тахометр, который также питается электрической энергией.

Выше описная ситуация встречалась часто на классических отечественных автомобилях. Для того чтобы обеспечить электрические компоненты автомобиля качественным напряжением, которое не будет зависеть от капризов генератора, лучше применить автономный автомобильный стабилизатор напряжения 12 вольт. Даже такие популярные сегодня элементы тюнинга, как светодиодная лента, лучше питать через этот прибор.

На сегодня успешно используются автомобильные модели, чья конструкция построена на микросхемах серии КР142, которые рассчитаны на работу при напряжении 12 В. Они имеют такую маркировку: КР142ЕН12 и КР142ЕН18. В конструкции этих микросхем предусмотрена защита по току, который через них протекает, а также защита от перегрева.

Цифры в маркировке, которые стоят после букв ЕН, обозначают номинальное напряжение, при котором может работать микросхема. Кроме приведенных выше, в автомобиле возможно применение микросхемы КР142ЕН8В, однако она будет выдавать рабочий ток, равный 2,2 А, а он больше, чем у первых двух вариантов.

Вариантов подключения в схему стабилизатора напряжения 12 вольт в автомобиле много. Ниже на рисунке приведен самый простой пример, который вполне приемлем для людей, которые не имеют больших познаний в электронике.


Cхема подключения стабилизатора напряжения 12 вольт
Если при монтаже схемы будет использована микросхема КР142ЕН18, то переменный резистор R2 необходимо будет немного подстроить, что бы значение выходного напряжения было правильной величины. В остальном, схема подключения аналогична представленной на рисунке.

Резисторы, должны быть по мощности не менее 0,05 Вт, так как при работе она будет зависеть от разницы значений входного и выходного напряжения. Устанавливается микросхема на радиатор. Максимальный ток, который может протекать через микросхему составляет 1,5 А. Для работы автомобильной магнитолы этого тока может быть не достаточно, но другие электрические устройства машины могут работать вполне полноценно. У описанных отечественных микросхем есть импортный аналог — микросхема типа LM317T.

Подключать в электрическую цепь ее можно, пользуясь той же схемой. Если возникла необходимость все-таки подсоединить более мощное устройство и с большим током потребления, которое будет питаться через стабилизатор напряжения 12 вольт, то проблему можно решить подключением параллельно нескольких микросхем. Таким образом, ток будет снижен.

Импульсное устройство отличается от тех, что описаны выше, своими основными функциями. Он нестабильный ток от внешнего источника подает на катушку индуктивности короткими импульсами. Благодаря этому в индуктивности запасается энергия, которая переходит в нагрузку в виде электрической энергии, но имеет уже другие параметры напряжения.

Стабилизация происходит благодаря длительности импульсов и пауз. Импульсные приборы имеют высокий КПД по сравнению с линейными. Другими словами, они могут преобразовывать входное напряжение по заданным заранее параметрам. Отрегулировать эти параметры можно благодаря разным вариантам составления электрической схемы. Импульсный преобразователь может быть повышающим, понижающим или инвертирующим.

Внешний вид стабилизатора напряжения
Электросеть автомобиля это очень уязвимая часть для всяческих помех, выбросов или перепадов напряжения. Помехи могут быть созданы работой генератора, нестабильным напряжением, которое зависит от состояния аккумулятора и оборотов двигателя. Для защиты электрической сети в автомобилях используют импульсный стабилизатор напряжения 12 вольт.

Благодаря ему нестабильное напряжение электросети на входе питает сеть стабильными 12 вольтами и током, около 0,3-0,4 ампера. Штатные узлы машины, которые запитаны от электроэнергии, обычно надежно защищены при установке.


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