Тяговый электродвигатель

29 июля 2015г. - 12:15 3190 просмотров


Тяговый электродвигательТяговый электродвигатель – это устройство, с помощью которого приводятся в движение транспортные средства. Это всем известные троллейбусы, трамваи, тепловозы и новейшие средства передвижения-электромобили.

Изготавливаются тяговые электродвигатели постоянного тока и переменного тока, с индивидуальной системой передачи вращающего момента к движущему механизму и с групповой. Системы вентиляции могут быть независимой, самоохлаждающей и смешанной.

Наибольшее распространение получили коллекторные тяговые устройства постоянного тока. Они используются, например, в поездах метро.

Все такие модели и их конструкции имеют много деталей и узлов, которые унифицированы и взаимозаменяемы. Поэтому ремонт тяговых двигателей простой и сравнительно дешевый. При изготовлении этих агрегатов можно применять одни и те же станки и оборудование, что, безусловно, снижает их себестоимость.

Технические характеристики электродвигателей постоянного тока довольно хорошие, конструкции их просты, а в эксплуатации они надежны.


Их конструкция отличается от конструкции стационарных моделей постоянного тока. Конструкцию последних «продиктовали» условия работы и расположение.

Внешний вид тягового электродвигателя
Размеры этих устройств ограничены размерами того транспортного средства, для которого они предусмотрены. Диаметр ограничен диаметром колеса, так как необходимо выдержать заданное расстояние от двигателя до дисковой пары, которую следует привести в движение.

На железнодорожных вагонах, а также на вагонах метро установлены четыре электрических двигателя, по одному на каждую пару колес. При установке на железнодорожные вагоны они работают в условиях, когда на них попадают грязь, пыль, вода, поэтому все детали устройств должны быть надежно защищены. Для качественного отвода тепла, которое выделяется при их работе, в конструкции предусмотрен вентилятор, который устанавливается на валу якоря. Вентилятор засасывает воздух со стороны коллектора и прогоняет его через весь агрегат.

В технических характеристиках стационарных электродвигателей принято указывать их номинальную мощность, которую они должны отдавать неограниченное количество времени, при этом температура их узлов должна быть в определенных пределах. Значения этих пределов ограничены нормами для используемых изоляционных материалов.

Для тяговых двигателей, в связи с режимом их работы, к важным характеристикам добавлены значения часового и максимального режимов.

Тяговый асинхронный электродвигатель
Еще один распространенный вид – это тяговый асинхронный электродвигатель. Он получил применение во многих отраслях народного хозяйства благодаря тому, что его устройство не сложное. Он предназначен для преобразования электрического тока в механическую энергию.

Устройства переменного тока используют для своей работы вращающееся магнитное поле. Они предназначены, главным образом, для обеспечения движения поездов. Колесные пары приводятся в действие при помощи тяговых редукторов. Схема их конструкции в большинстве своем одинакова. Различие может быть только в способе крепления, системе смазывания осевых подшипников, различием исполнения некоторых составных частей. Тяговые модели, за исключением типа ЭД126, являются 4-х полюсными.

Вентиляция тяговых агрегатов должна быть на высоком уровне. Обеспечение эффективной вентиляции — это вопроси безопасности и надежной работы на протяжении всего периода эксплуатации. Вентиляционная система имеет следующий принцип. Воздух, который попадает в систему вентиляции, может содержать пыль и другие мелкие металлические частицы, которые образуются при работе тормозных колодок.

Зимой на устройство может попадать снег. Избавится полностью от таких загрязнений невозможно. Постепенное загрязнение частицами, которые проводят ток, приводит к износу коллектора и щеток. Состояние изоляции становится хуже, ухудшаются условия ее охлаждения.


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