Расчет траверсы

22 июля 2015г. - 16:44 10627 просмотров


Расчет траверсыТраверса – это специальная навесная вспомогательная перекладина.

Основной целью применения любой траверсы (а их существует несколько основных видов – линейная, Н-образная и траверса-спредер) является обеспечение наиболее удобного захвата грузов специальным подъемно-передвижным механизмом.

Для того чтобы выбрать наиболее оптимальный подъемный механизм производится такой процесс как расчет траверсы.

 

Зачем необходим расчет траверсы?

Такой расчет траверсы позволяет избежать в дальнейшем различного рода неприятностей, среди которых поломка самого механизма и даже срыв груза в процессе перемещения.


 

Траверса

Траверса

В основном любая траверса используется при строительно-монтажных работах либо на производстве для подъема и перемещения тяжелых грузов самой нестандартной формы и даже в ограниченном пространстве. Для того чтобы было более понятно, можно сказать, что траверса – это некая металлическая балка, к которой с одной стороны крепится грузоподъемный механизм, а с другого крепления для строп и захватов, фиксирующих груз в ходе перемещения.

Стоит отметить, что благодаря такому процессу как расчет траверсы можно провести расчет наиболее оптимального распределения нагрузки грузоподъемных работ. Фиксация строп к траверсе может осуществляться несколькими основными способами, но чаще всего это происходит при помощи такелажных крюков и скоб.

На сегодняшний день можно выделить несколько основных видов траверс, которые наиболее часто используются на производстве: рамные, балочные, консольно-крестовые, параллелограммные, ферменные и пирамидальные. Если необходимо поднять груз кранами с различной грузоподъемностью, то рационально использовать разноплечные уравновешивающие либо балансированные траверсы (указаны на рисунке ниже).

 

Виды траверс

Виды траверс

Расчет траверсы

Как правило, стандартные траверсы выполняются из двутавровровых балок, соединенных между собой стальными пластинками. Именно поэтому, расчет траверс, которые применяются на любом производстве, проводится по единому алгоритму, и он будет рассмотрен немного ниже.

При проведении расчета траверс любого тира, изгибающим моментом, а также прогибом от собственной массы такого вида подъемных элементов можно пренебречь. Делается это потому, что масса траверсы по сравнению с массой поднимаемой конструкции просто ничтожна и составляет всего лишь незначительную ее долю.

Расчет всех необходимых технических данных такого подъемного механизма как траверса, работающего на изгиб, проводится с некоторой последовательностью:

  • Расчет нагрузки, действующей на траверсу

P=Qkпkд

Q в этой формуле – это вес груза, который поднимается (Н), kп (прим. 1,1) – коэффициент перегрузки, а kд (1,2) – коэффициент динамической нагрузки.

  • Определение максимального изгибающего момента, действующего ан траверсу

Mmax=0.5Pa

Ф этой формуле а – плечо траверсы.

  • Вычисление требуемого момента сопротивления поперечного сечения траверсы

Wтр= Mmax/(nRизгφ)

В этой формуле n=0.85 – это коэффициент, который зависит от условий работы траверсы, φ – коэффициент устойчивости траверсы при изгибе, Rизг – расчетное сопротивление траверсы при изгибе.

После проведения вычислений, из таблицы, которая будет приведена ниже, необходимо выбрать расчетную схему сечения траверсы, задаваясь при этом сплошной либо сквозной конструкцией такого подъемного механизма. Стоит отметить, что для сплошной балки траверсы следует выбирать швеллер, двутавр либо же стальную трубу, а для сквозной – одну из схем, приведенных в таблице.

 

 

таблица1 расчета

таблица2 расчета

Что касается других отдельных узлов и деталей, которые применяются в траверсах (а это всяческие такелажные скобы, проушины, пальцы, а также сварные и болтовые соединения), то их расчет следует выполнять не так как расчет траверсы, а с учетом некоторых специальных методик.

Расчет траверсы, работающей на сжатие

Стоит отметить, что кроме стандартных траверс, работающих на изгиб, в промышленности очень часто используются еще и устройства, которые работают на сжатие (показаны на рисунке ниже). Как правило, эти самые траверсы изготавливаются двух видов: однобалочные и трехлучевые, что в свою очередь позволяет обеспечить неизменность их формыв зависимости от действующих нагрузок.

 

Траверса

Траверса

В зависимости от нагрузки и длины самой траверсы, применяемые для их изготовления балки, могут иметь самые различные поперечные сечения: сплошные, состоящие из двух швеллеров либо двутавров, связанных между собой стальными пластинами или же трубчатые, дополнительно усиленные уголками.

Не лишним будет отметить, что траверсы, работающие на сжатие, рассчитываются на два основных параметра – на прочность и на устойчивость.

Как и в случае с траверсой, работающей на изгиб, работающий на сжатие подъемный механизм, имеет некую последовательность расчета:

  • Расчет натяжения в каждой тяге, которая соединяет траверсу с крюком грузоподъемного механизма.

N=Q|(2cosα)

В этой формуле Q – это вес поднимаемого груза, а α – угол наклона тяги к вертикали.

По такому полученному в ходе расчетов натяжению, дополнительно рассчитываются еще и стальные канаты, которые удерживают тяги.

  • Определение сжимающего усилия в стержне траверсы.

N=Qkgkдtgα/2

В зависимости от величины нагрузки, а также длины самой траверсы, задается форма ее поперечного сечения. Для этого выбирается сплошное сечение из одиночного швеллера или трубы, либо же одна из схем сквозного сечения из таблицы, которая была приведена выше.

В дальнейшем выбранное сечение траверсы необходимо дополнительно проверить на устойчивость. Данный процесс проводится аналогичным образом, как и для стержня, который подвергается работе на сжатие.

Стоит отметить, что все подвески, которые соединяют траверсу с поднимаемым ею грузом, рассчитываются таким же образом, что и канаты.

Кроме двух приведенных выше траверс, на промышленных объектах может также использоваться еще и так называемая уравновешивающая траверса. Такой механизм полностью исключает возможную перегрузку одного из кранов, поднимающих траверсу.


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