Редуктор одноступенчатый

22 июля 2015г. - 16:52 6213 просмотров


Редуктор одноступенчатыйРедуктор представляет собой механизм, состоит который из  зубчатых колес либо передач и выполнен в форме отдельного агрегата. Он служит для такой функции, как передача вращения от вала мотора к валу рабочего механизма.

Назначением  редуктора является понижение угловой скорости, следовательно, ускорение вращающего момента вала, который следует за ведущим.

В конструкцию редуктора входит корпус, который сделан из сварной стали или литого чугуна.  В нем находятся элементы передачи – подшипники, валы, зубчатые колеса и др. В корпусе редуктора в некоторых случаях помещены и устройства, предназначенные для смазывания подшипников и зацеплений, к примеру, в корпус червячного редуктора помещается змеевик с охлаждающей жидкостью.

Редукторы различают по типу передачи:

  1. Червячные,
  2. Зубчатые;
  3. Зубчато-чевячные.

По типу зубчатых колес разделяют:


  1.  конические,
  2.  цилиндрические и др.

По относительному порядку валов редуктора в пространстве разделяют:

  1. горизонтальные,
  2. вертикальные.

По отличительным признакам кинематической схемы:

  1.  с раздвоенной ступенью,
  2. развернутая и т.д.

Редукторы проектируются или для привода конкретной машины, либо по заданной нагрузке и передаточному числу, не указывая конкретное назначение.

 По числу ступеней  различают редукторы:

  1. Одноступенчатые,
  2. Двухступенчатые.

Одноступенчатые цилиндрические редукторы по расположению валов могут быть  горизонтальные( рис 1) и вертикальные( рис.2).  Как правило, они имеют косозубое зацепление.

Рис. 1. Одноступенчатый цилиндрический редуктор горизонтальный

Рис. 1. Одноступенчатый цилиндрический редуктор горизонтальный

Рис. 2. Одноступенчатый цилиндрический редуктор вертикальный

Рис. 2. Одноступенчатый цилиндрический редуктор вертикальный

Наиболее чаще используются узкие горизонтальные одноступенчатые цилиндрические редукторы общемашиностроительного применения таких типов, как 1ЦУ-250, ЦУ-200, ЦУ-160, ЦУ-100, основным предназначением которых является уменьшение частоты вращения и увеличение крутящего момента.

Применяются одноступенчатые цилиндрические редукторы ЦУ100 — ЦУ250

  •  при переменной и постоянной нагрузке, реверсивной и одного направления;
  • для постоянной работы или периодическими остановками;
  • для вращения валов в разные стороны;
  • в случаях, если частотность вращения входного вала не будет превысить 1800 об/мин,
  • в случае, если атмосфера I и II типов по ГОСТ 15150-69 , а запыленность воздуха составляет не более 10мг/м3

Одноступенчатые цилиндрические редукторы типа 1ЦУ представлены в следующих вариантах сборки.

 

Одноступенчатые цилиндрические редукторы типа 1ЦУ

Технические характеристики

Тип редуктора Передаточное число u Мт, Н*м Масса Aw
ЦУ-100 6.3, 5.0, 4.0, 3.15, 2.5, 2.0, 1.6, 315 20кг 100
ЦУ-160 1250 77.5кг 160
ЦУ-200 2500 135кг 200
ЦУ-250 5000 250кг 250

 

При работе в реверсивном режиме, то есть когда периодически изменяются направления нагрузки, то на выходном валу номинальные крутящие моменты, которые указаны в  таблице,  должны быть на 30 % снижены.

Одноступенчатые редукторы могут допускать кратковременные перегрузки, возникающие при остановках и пусках мотора, превышающие номинальные нагрузки в 2 раза, когда количество циклов нагружения вала быстрого хода при действии этих перегрузок, не будет превысить 3.106.

На выходном валу номинальные крутящие моменты, которые указаны в таблице для редукторов ЦУ-200 — ЦУ-250, лишь передаются при струйной смазке.

Для 13, 23, 33 вариантов сборки  на выходном валу номинальная радиальная нагрузка должна быть в два раза уменьшена.

Редукторы таких вариантов сборки, как 31, 32, 33 производятся по согласованию с изготовителем.

Одноступенчатый цилиндрический редуктор — проектирование

Перед проектированием одноступенчатого цилиндрического редуктора делается проектный расчет одноступенчатого редуктора, целью которого является:

  1. Подбор материала валов.
  2. Выбор допускаемого напряжения на кручение.
  3. Выполнение проектного расчета вала на чистое кручение.
  4. Разработка эскизной компоновки редуктора.

Расчет редукторных валов осуществляется в два этапа:

  1. проектный (приблизительный) расчет на чистое кручение;
  2. проверочный (точный) расчет на прочность по напряжениям кручения и изгиба.

Рекомендуется в проектируемых редукторах использовать термически обработанные легированные или среднеуглеродистые стали.

Проектный расчет валов выполняют по напряжениям кручения, при этом не учитывается напряжения изгиба, циклы напряжений и концентрации напряжений. Вот почему, для компенсации приближенности такого метода расчета, применяются заниженные допускаемые напряжения кручения. Причем меньшие значения используются для проектирования валов быстрого хода, а большие — для валов тихого хода.

Определение геометрических значений ступеней валов

Редукторный вал из себя представляет тело ступенчатое цилиндрическое, размеры и количество ступеней которого зависят от размеров и количества деталей, установленных на вал. Целью проектного расчета является определение ориентировочно геометрических размеров каждой ступени вала, ее длину и диаметр.

 Предварительный подбор подшипников качения осуществляется по следующей схеме:

  • составляется схема расчета валов редуктора,
  • делается контрольный расчет подшипников,
  • компоновка привода конструктивная,
  • конструирование зубчатого колеса,
  • вал-шестерня,
  • установка колёс на валах,
  • конструирование валов,
  • переходные участки;
  •  посадочные поверхности,
  •  конструирование подшипниковых узлов,
  • Составляются схемы установки подшипников,
  • посадка подшипников,
  • крепление колец подшипников в корпусе или на валу,
  • составление чертежа внутренней конструкции подшипников,
  • крышки подшипниковых узлов,
  • уплотнительные устройства,

Конструирование корпуса редуктора,

  • форма корпуса,
  • фланцевые соединения,
  • элементы или детали корпуса редуктора,
  • выбор муфт,
  • определяется расчетный момент, выбирается муфта,
  • установка муфт на валах
  • смазывание устройства
  • смазывание зубчатого зацепления,
  • смазывание подшипников,

Проверочные расчеты

  • Проверочный расчет шпонок;
  • контрольный расчет валов.

Технический уровень редуктора

  • Определение массы редуктора,
  • определение мер технического уровня редуктора.


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