Масляный насос

31 июля 2015г. - 14:56 4715 просмотров


Масляный насосДля того чтобы в системе смазки создать давление, был придуман масляный насос. Благодаря создаваемому им давлению обеспечивается смазка всех движущихся частей, из которых состоит двигатель внутреннего сгорания.

В тех системах смазки, где есть сухой картер, на этот агрегат возложена дополнительная функция перекачка масла в специальный масляный бак из картера двигателя.

Запуск устройства осуществляется при помощи распределительного вала с одновременным воздействием приводного вала либо при помощи коленчатого вала.

Масляные насосы по характеру управления подразделяются на регулируемые и нерегулируемые. Регулируемые поддерживают постоянное давление. Поддержка постоянного давления в системе смазки нерегулируемыми моделями осуществляется при содействии редукционного клапана.

По конструкционному устройству подобные агрегаты различают как:


  • Шестерного типа,
  • Роторного типа.

В устройство масляного насоса шестерного типа входят две шестерни, одна из которых ведущая, а вторая ведомая. Эти шестерни расположены в корпусе. В устройство масло поступает посредством всасывающего канала, затем шестерни его захватывают и нагнетают в систему при помощи нагнетательного канала.

Производительность шестеренной модели соразмерна с частотой вращения коленчатого вала. В случае, когда превышается определенная величина давления нагнетаемого масла, тут же срабатывает редукционный клапан масляного насоса, который часть масла перепускает либо прямо в картер двигателя, либо во всасывающую полость.

Масляный насос шестерного типа
Шестеренные агрегаты по конструкции делятся на два вида:

  • Масляный шестеренный, имеющий наружное зацепление (шестерня поблизости от шестерни);
  • Масляный шестеренный, имеющий внутреннее зацепление (шестерня в шестерне).

И тот, и другой тип имеют одинаковую производительность. Однако по габаритам шестеренный масляный насос, у которого внутреннее зацепление, гораздо меньше аналога с зацеплением наружным. Шестеренный тип относится к нерегулируемым устройствам.

В масляном насосе роторного типа объединяются два ротора, размещенных в корпусе. Один ротор ведущий (внутренний), второй ведомый (внешний). Сначала агрегатом всасывается масло, затем это масло захватывают лопасти ротора и нагнетают в систему. При превышении давления в роторной модели, также как и в шестеренной, срабатывает редукционный клапан.

У регулируемого масляного изделия роторного типа более совершенная конструкция. Именно она гарантирует постоянное давление во всех интервалах частоты вращения коленчатого вала.

Регулируемый масляный насос роторного типа
Масляный насос АКПП контролирует давление масла в трансмиссии. Он связывается с корпусом гидротрансформатора и агрегатируется в передней части АКПП. Когда двигатель включен, устройство подает давление. Это происходит благодаря коленчатому валу двигателя, который напрямую связан с гидротрансформатором.

От количества масла зависит длительность поддержки давления. В агрегат масло поступает по трубке, затем оно проходит сквозь специальный фильтр, расположенный в нижней части поддона, а потом под давлением поступает в регулятор давления. Далее масло попадает в систему клапанов, а после этого в другие компоненты.

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Продолжительность работы всего двигателя зависит от исправности привода масляного насоса, который состоит из нескольких деталей — промежуточной шестерни, паразитного вала и двух валов. Когда все детали существенно поизносились, в смазочной системе наблюдается понижение давления и появление шума. При разборке устройства необходимо проверить жесткость пружины редукционного клапана. Жесткость пружины считается достаточной, в случае если нужно приложить усилие для ее сжатия в высоту до 24 мм.

Как правило, ремонт масляного насоса заключается в замене шестерен и прокладок, шлифовании торцов крышек. При его разборке необходимо предварительно высверлить расклепанную головку штифта, которой крепится втулка. Затем выбивается штифт, снимается втулка и крышка масляного насоса. Потом необходимо одновременно вытянуть из корпуса валик с ведущей шестерней в сторону крышки. Если же будет производиться разборка валика и ведущей шестерни, штифт необходимо высверливать сверлом, диаметр которого равен 3 мм. Кроме того, ведущую и ведомую шестеренки с выкрошенными зубьями нужно заменить на новые. То же нужно сделать и с шестернями, у которых заметны выработки поверхности зубьев.

Ремонт масляного насоса
Ведущая и ведомая шестерни, установленные в корпусе, должны с легкостью проворачиваться за ведущий валик рукой. Нужно прошлифовать внутреннюю полость крышки, если на ней обнаружена существенная выработка от торцов шестерен. Между корпусом, пластиной и крышкой должна находиться паронитовая прокладка масляного насоса толщиной 0,3-0,4 мм. При установке прокладки недопустимо применение краски, шеллака или иных герметизирующих веществ.

Во избежание уменьшения подачи нельзя устанавливать прокладку с большей толщиной. Для того чтобы уменьшить износ в шарнирных соединениях привода, агрегат нужно устанавливать соосно отверстию для привода. При этом необходимо пользоваться оправкой, которая плотно входит в отверстие для привода и имеет цилиндрический хвостовик 13 мм в диаметре.

Устройство нужно сцентрировать по хвостовику оправки и закрепить в этом положении. Если после ремонта работоспособность его невозможно восстановить, то следует купить новый.


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