Муфта вентилятора

16 июля 2015г. - 9:40 7612 просмотров


Муфта вентилятора

Муфта вентилятора служит для охлаждения двигателя легкового автомобиля. При изменении температуры потока воздуха за радиатором, изменяется частота вращения вентилятора. Муфта вентилятора стоит на валу насоса охлаждающей жидкости автомобильного двигателя и автоматически поддерживает его тепловой режим.

Из преимуществ такой муфты можно отметить:

  • Более низкий эксплуатационный расход топлива и малые потери мощности двигателя, необходимые для обслуживания вспомогательных агрегатов,
  • Уменьшение уровня шума и увеличение срока службы ремня привода.

Задача охлаждения современных двигателей решается при помощи вентилятора. При системе жидкостного охлаждения вентилятор прогоняет воздух через радиатор, а при воздушном охлаждении — подает воздух, как охлаждающее тело, к нагретым частям двигателя. С момента появления вентиляторов конструкторы постоянно совершенствуют работу привода.

При резкой смене режимов работы двигателя, привод испытывает большие нагрузки, для устранения которых устанавливают гидравлические, фрикционные или упругие резиновые муфты.


На широко известных автобусах «Икарус» устанавливают фрикционную муфту вентилятора с пневматическим приводом – своего рода сцепление. Регулирование включения и отключения здесь осуществляется сжатым воздухом, в зависимости от температуры охлаждающей жидкости.

Созданы сложные системы, которые могут совершать плавную регулировку скорости вентилятора. На легковых автомобилях (БМВ, Мерседес), на некоторых грузовиках (ЗИЛ-4331), в приводе вентилятора стоит вискомуфта — вязкостная муфта вентилятора.

новая муфта вентилятора старая муфта вентилятора

Это устройство работает так: Пока двигатель не прогрет, рабочая полость муфты не заполнена. По мере прогревания мотора, тепловой датчик начинает открывать клапан, и силиконовая жидкость, находящаяся в резервной полости, начинает поступать в рабочую полость. Она проскальзывает между дисками, ее вязкость растет, и муфта начинает передавать вращающий момент. По мере повышения температуры, рабочая полость заполняется больше, и от этого, обороты вентилятора увеличиваются. Так осуществляется плавная регулировка работы вентилятора. Конструктивно, вискомуфта устроена таким образом, что при малых оборотах она немного проскальзывает, а при высоких оборотах – вентилятор заметно отстает. Это, позволяет на высокой скорости, когда обдув радиатора достаточен существенно экономить энергию (топливо).

В двигателе КамАЗ 740.30-260 стоит вентилятор, для привода которого применяется автоматически включаемая вязкостная муфта вентилятора камаз, которая крепится к ступице вентилятора.

В работе такой муфты используется вязкостный принцип трения жидкости между ведомой и ведущей частями муфты. Здесь применяется силиконовая жидкость с высокой вязкостью.

Эта муфта вентилятора неразборная, и поэтому не нуждается в техническом обслуживании во время эксплуатации.

Муфта включается при достижении температуры воздуха выходящего из радиатора до 61 — 67 °С. Датчиком управления работы муфты служит биметаллическая термоспираль, которая и включает муфту.

Обороты вентиляторов, стоящих на тяжелых дизельных двигателях изменяются в зависимости от заполнения полости между ведущим и ведомым колесами гидравлической муфты. Бесступенчатое регулирование оборотов привода вентилятора производится автоматически. По мере изменения температуры охлаждающей жидкости, меняется количество масла, которое поступает из системы смазки двигателя. И в зависимости от величины заполнения полости между ведущим и ведомым колесами муфты, изменяются обороты вентилятора.

Гидромуфта используется и на таких двигателях с воздушным охлаждением, как дизели марки «Дойц», которые стоят на грузиках «Магирус». Здесь терморегулятор, на основании величины температуры воздуха на выходе из системы охлаждения, и температуры выхлопных газов, управляет подачей масла в муфту. Работа этой системы зависит также и от величины температуры масла — при ее росте — вязкость масла снижается, а значит, горячего (в жидком виде) масла в рабочую полость поступает больше. Кстати, в таких условиях, эта муфта включения вентилятора работает еще как центрифуга для очистки масла.

Электромагнитная муфта вентилятора

Электромагнитная муфта привода вентилятора автоматически поддерживает оптимальный диапазон температур охлаждающей жидкости, путем передачи необходимого вращения вентилятору системы охлаждения. Такая муфта применяется в автомобилях марки ЗМЗ-4063.10 и ЗМЗ-40522.10, для работы в системе охлаждения двигателей.

Электромагнитную муфту привода вентилятора также ставят в систему охлаждения двигателя автомобиля КамАЗ. Она служит для поддержания теплового режима в диапазоне 85-90° С.

Эта муфта осуществляет автоматическое регулирование работой вентилятора в зависимости от температуры охлаждающей жидкости в двигателе. Такая муфта вентилятора устанавливается на двигателях автомобилей КамАЗ-6520, КамАЗ-54115 и их модификаций, предназначенных для работы в условиях умеренного и тропического климата.

Поскольку применение электромагнитной муфты уменьшает потери мощности на приводе вентилятора, то соответственно снижается и расход топлива автомобиля. А в зимнее время отключение вентилятора позволяет улучшить температурный режим двигателя.

Электромагнитная муфта проще и фрикционной муфты с элементами управления, и гидромуфты, а по сравнению с вязкостной муфтой она может полностью включать и выключать вентилятор, что и обеспечивает надежную работу.

Муфта состоит из электромагнита, который установлен на ступице вентилятора. Ступица соединена пластинчатой пружиной с якорем, который свободно вращается вместе с ней на подшипнике. Тепловое реле срабатывает при достижении температуры охлаждающей жидкости в верхнем бачке радиатора, значения 85-90° С. Контакты реле замыкаются, в катушку поступает электрический ток, под действием которого она притягивает к себе якорь, и ступица вместе с вентилятором начинает вращаться. Если температура охлаждающей жидкости понижается до 80-85° С, то контакты теплового реле размыкаются и вентилятор отключается.

При всех технических новациях в приводах вентиляторов, можно отметить, что они все же не избавляют двигатели внутреннего сгорания от такого серьезного недостатка как потеря (до 30%) энергии топлива, расходуемой на систему охлаждения.


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