Стойки амортизаторов

31 июля 2015г. - 14:49 3213 просмотров


Стойки амортизаторовОсновной частью ходовой современного легкового автомобиля является подвеска. На сегодняшний день подвеска машины представляет полноценную законченную систему, которая имеет следующую спецификацию по типам:

  • подвеска МакФерсон (англ. McPherson);
  • подвеска с поперечными рычагами (двойными);
  • подвеска с продольными рычагами;
  • подвеска торсионная;
  • система рычагов (многорычажная подвеска, англ. Multilink).

В основном на задней оси машины используется только подвеска с продольными рычагами. Другие типы подвесок легкового автомобиля применяются на любых его осях.

Чаще всего встречаются в современном автомобилестроении два типа подвесок:

  1. передняя ось подвеска МакФерсон;
  2. задняя ось система рычагов (Multilink).

На некоторых внедорожниках и автомобилях элитного класса используется подвеска с пневматическими упругими элементами. Особое внимание среди конструкций подвесок заслуживает гидропневматическая подвеска фирмы Ситроен. Все конструкции этих подвесок выполнены на общеизвестных принципах.

Перспективным видом подвески автомобиля является активная (адаптивная) подвеска, в которой используется демпфирующая способность к автоматическому регулированию.


Стойки амортизаторов представляют собой основную часть подвески МакФерсон (McPherson). Подвеска МакФерсон предназначена для применения на легковом автомобиле с передним приводом (передняя ось). Конструкция ее это дальнейшее развитие подвески с поперечными рычагами (двойными). Во время движения автомобиля стойки амортизаторов обеспечивают отличную связь между колесами и кузовом машины, что позволяет стабилизировать положение кузова и удерживать колеса машины на поверхности дороги.

Внешний вид стоек амортизаторов
Благодаря своей компактности подвеска McPherson получила широкое применение на легковых автомобилях с передним приводом, так как позволяет устанавливать двигатель с коробкой передач компактно в подкапотном пространстве путем поперечного расположения. Еще одним преимуществом данной подвески является несложная конструкция, а также большой рабочий ход телескопической части стойки амортизаторов, который препятствует пробоям.

Недостатком является шарнирное крепление этих изделий, которое приводит к значительному изменению развала-схождения колес (угол наклона между вертикальной плоскости колеса и автомобиля). Поэтому такую подвеску не используют на автомобилях элитного класса, внедорожниках и спортивных машинах.

Основные части, из которых состоит подвеска МакФерсон это подрамник, рычаг поперечный, кулак поворотный, стойки амортизаторов, поперечный стабилизатор устойчивости.

Подрамник — это основная несущая часть автомобильной подвески. Крепится он резинометаллическими опорами (сайлентблоком) к кузову. Это позволяет значительно уменьшить вибрацию и снизить шум. Некоторые автопроизводители применяют крепление подрамника к кузову без сайлентблоков (жестко). Опоры, которые держат поперечный рычаг, рулевой механизм, поперечный стабилизатор устойчивости крепятся к подрамнику.

С двух сторон поперечно подрамнику крепятся рычаги, которые держат правое и левое колеса. Каждый такой рычаг в двух местах соединяется с подрамником через резиновые втулки. Необходимая жесткость в продольном направлении обеспечивается двойным креплением рычага. Поперечный рычаг соединяется с поворотным кулаком вторым концом с помощью шаровой опоры.

Для поворота колес предназначен поворотный кулак, состоящий из рулевой тяги и шарнирного соединения. С помощью клеммового соединения часть поворотного кулака, которая находится вверху, закреплена на стойке амортизатора. В нижней части поперечный рычаг соединяется с поворотным кулаком. Наконечник выступает дополнительным рычагом для рулевого механизма и соединен шаровой опорой с поворотным кулаком. В кулаке находиться узел из подшипников и суппорт тормоза. Узел из подшипников состоит из ступицы колеса и ступичного подшипника.

Использованная стойка амортизаторов
Стойка амортизатора в сборе собрана всего лишь из двух основных деталей — пружины и самого амортизационного устройства. На стойке металлическая пружина закреплена, между нижней и верхней опорной чашкой. Для улучшения характеристики упругости стальной пружины на шток устанавливается буфер сжатия.

Передние стойки амортизатора автомобиля в нижней части соединены с поворотным кулаком. При этом они телескопической нижней частью держатся поворотным рычагом. В верхней части передние стойки амортизаторов крепятся к кузову автомобиля через резиновую втулку.

Передние стойки амортизаторов Акцент, как стойка амортизатора Мицубиси, так и стойка амортизатора Калина сделаны по классической схеме подвески МакФерсон.

Поперечный стабилизатор устойчивости необходим для снижения боковых кренов машины. Стабилизатор крепится к подрамнику двумя опорами. Концы стабилизатора с помощью соединительных штанг, на концах которых шарнирные наконечники, соединяются с амортизационными стойками.

Автомобильная стойка амортизатора
Стойка амортизатора задняя отличается от передней стойки амортизаторов спецификацией крепления пружины.

Стойка амортизатора задняя в нижней части крепится к подрамнику системой рычагов. В настоящее время это самый распространенный вид задней подвески легкового автомобиля. Основными преимуществами системы рычагов, есть отличная плавность хода, отсутствия шума, отличная управляемость. Недостатки этого типа подвески — это значительная дороговизна в производстве и сложность в установке. Такая подвеска устанавливается на автомобили, как с передним, так и с задним приводом. Еще такой тип подвески используется на некоторых моделях автомобилей Ауди на передней оси.

Данный тип подвески продолжает дальнейшее развитие подвески на поперечных рычагах (двойных). Если каждый из поперечных рычагов (двойных) разделить на две отдельные части получиться простая подвеска их системы рычагов.

В многорычажной системе ступицы колес крепятся, как минимум четырьмя рычагами. Это позволяет регулировать колеса независимо в продольной и поперечной плоскости. В большинстве современных конструкциях подвесок наряду с поперечными рычагами применяют и продольные рычаги.

Система рычагов состоит из: подрамника, поперечных и продольных рычагов; ступичной опоры, металлической пружины, поперечного стабилизатора устойчивости.

Основной несущий элемент подвески подрамник, он крепиться к кузову. К нему поперечные рычаги крепятся через резинометаллические втулки.

Новая стойка амортизатора
Ступичная опора соединена с поперечным рычагом для обеспечения надежного поперечного положения. Обычно в конструкциях подвесок используется до пяти рычагов в поперечной плоскости. Стандартная схема рычажной подвески включает в себя только три рычага: верхний, задний нижний, передний нижний.

Для передачи поперечных усилий используется верхний рычаг, это связующее звено между корпусом опоры колеса и подрамника. Схождение колеса определяется положением переднего нижнего рычага. Для восприятия нагрузки кузова используется задний нижний рычаг, который берет на себя, через рычаг на пружину, вес кузова.

Продольный рычаг только выполняет функцию ведения колеса в продольном направлении. С помощью опоры продольный рычаг крепится к кузову машины. Со второй стороны рычаг соединен с опорой ступицы. Свой продольный рычаг приходится на каждое из колес.

Опора ступицы — это корпус опоры колеса, предназначенный как основание для размещения подшипника ступицы, крепления колеса. Подшипник крепится на опоре ступицы болтом.

Для противодействия нагрузок в подвеске устанавливается стальная пружина. Она опирается на поперечный рычаг, который называется задний нижний.

Металлическая пружина и амортизатор крепятся отдельно друг от друга. Последний соединяется с опорой ступицы.

В конструкции многорычажной подвески часто используется поперечный стабилизатор устойчивости, который компенсирует крены автомобиля при поворотах и дает необходимое сцепление задних колес с покрытием дороги. Штанга стабилизатора крепиться резиновыми опорами на подрамнике. Специальные тяги выполняют обеспечение соединения штанги с опорами ступицы.


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