Устройство сцепления

31 июля 2015г. - 16:50 3997 просмотров


Устройство сцепленияУстройство сцепления обеспечивает автомобилю плавность начала движения и переключения. Трансмиссия используется в двух направлениях: передача крутящего момента от двигателя по направлению ведущих колес и изменение направления крутящегося момента и его величины.

Агрегаты трансмиссии заднеприводного и переднеприводного автомобиля несколько отличаются по своей структуре. Так, трансмиссия автомобиля с задним приводом предполагает передачу крутящегося момента на задние колёса непосредственно от двигателя (распределение происходит вдоль всего автомобиля). Переднеприводные предполагают передачу крутящегося момента на передние колеса от двигателя.

Трансмиссия авто с задним приводом состоит из:

  • сцепления;
  • коробки передач;
  • главной передачи;
  • карданной передачи;
  • дифференциала;
  • полуоси.

В автомобиле с передним приводом крутящемуся моменту не приходится идти так далеко от двигателя, как это предполагают заднеприводные. Здесь все компоненты трансмиссии объединены и находятся непосредственно под капотом автомобиля.

Трансмиссия автомобилей с передним приводом включает в себя следующие компоненты:


  • сцепление;
  • коробку передач;
  • дифференциал;
  • главную передачу;
  • валы привода передних колес.

Устройство сцепления автомобиля — это основная конструкция трансмиссии, которая предполагает передачу крутящего момента от маховика коленчатого вала двигателя к его первичному валу. Также благодаря ей водитель имеет возможность прерывать на короткое время передачу крутящегося момента, таким образом отделяя трансмиссию от двигателя, а также плавно соединять эти элементы.

Структура подобной конструкции предполагает наличие механизма сцепления и его привода. Он позволяет автомобилю исправно работать.

Процесс выключения предполагает наличие следующих компонентов (имеется в виду гидравлический тип):

  • педали;
  • рабочий цилиндр;
  • главный цилиндр;
  • вилка выключения;
  • трубопроводы;
  • нажимной подшипник.

Итак, во время нажатия водителем на соответствующую педаль происходит подача жидкости, которая предполагает передачу давления от поршня главного цилиндра на рабочий. Затем шток рабочего цилиндра производит действие перемещения вилки выключения и нажимного подшипника, посредством которого и происходит передача усилия на весь механизм. Когда педаль отпускается, то действия возвратных пружин восстанавливают все детали на их предыдущие позиции.

Это основное устройство автомобиля, которое предполагает передачу крутящегося момента благодаря работе сил трения. Оно способно обеспечить разъединение двигателя и коробок передач автомобиля на короткое время.

Этот механизм предполагает наличие следующих элементов:

  • кожуха и картера;
  • нажимного диска вместе с пружинами;
  • ведущего диска;
  • ведомого диска с износостойкими накладками.

Устройство главного цилиндра сцепления
Устройство главного цилиндра сцепления представляется как некая чугунная отливка с фланцем, который предназначен для крепления к кузову. На корпус сверху крепится пластмассовый бачок, который закрыт крышкой. Данный бачок прикреплен к корпусу с помощью штуцера, через который происходит подача жидкости в цилиндр. Внутри цилиндра расположен поршень с манжетой и уплотнительным кольцом. Жидкость проходит через компенсационное отверстие в бачок непосредственно из плоскости цилиндра во время расширения от нагревания.

Так, во время зажатия педали усилие передается на поршень через толкатель; поршень затем перемещается вперед. Затем, когда поршень переключает отверстие, происходит повышение давления в цилиндре благодаря чему жидкость перетекает в рабочий цилиндр через нагретый канал, таким образом выключая механизм. Когда происходит действие отпуска педали запускается обратная реакция перетекания жидкости, что приводит к его включению.

Что касается устройства ведомого диска сцепления, то его работа связана с работой первичного вала коробки передач. Таким образом, ведомый диск является прижатым к маховику с помощью нажимного диска под воздействием сильных пружин. Так, начало движения автомобиля предполагает прижатие ведомого диска, связанного с ведущими колесами, к вращающемуся маховику, другими словами, происходит включение.

Для того чтобы произвести действие выключения, водителю нужно нажать на педаль. В это время нажимной диск отдаляется от маховика и, таким образом, освобождает ведомый диск. Здесь также происходит прерывание передачи крутящегося момента к коробке передач от двигателя.

Внешний вид устройства сцепления
Устройство сцепления КАМАЗ — важная составляющая часть трансмиссии автомобиля. Данная конструкция состоит из нескольких важных элементов, таких как: нажимной диск и кожух, оттяжные рычаги, картер, нажимные пружины, ведомые диски с фрикционными накладками, средний ведущий диск, а также гасители крутильных колебаний. Все это обеспечивает подобный механизм в КАМАЗе.

Что касается устройства сцепления МАЗ, то оно представляет собой двухдисковую сухую конструкцию, которая характеризуется фрикционным типом и имеет периферийное расположение цилиндрических пружин. Она установлена в виде литого чугунного картера. Ведущей частью ее считается маховик двигателя, его нажимный диск, а также ведущий средний диск.


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