Замена кардана

31 июля 2015г. - 16:57 4267 просмотров


Замена карданаКарданный вал – это невероятно важная деталь автомобиля, любая неисправность которой в значительной степени снижает общую безопасность авто. Специалисты рекомендуют при первых же признаках неисправности отправлять автомобиль на диагностику, во время которой уже можно точно решить, нужна ли замена кардана или можно обойтись просто его балансировкой.

Если результаты диагностики показали, что вал вашего автомобиля нуждается в замене, то произвести её нужно в кратчайшие сроки, чтобы сломанная деталь не повлияла негативно на остальные автомобильные агрегаты и узлы.

Давайте подробнее разберемся с последовательностью замены такого механизма. Итак, для начала необходимо зажать его в тисках. После этого стоит вывернуть болты, с помощью которых к вилке крепятся крышки подшипников, а затем аккуратно снять указанные крышки с подшипников.

Замена рулевого кардана производится только после того, как будут сняты защитные колпаки. Для того чтобы это сделать, необходимо отвернуть предварительно болты, находящиеся на стяжных хомутах, а затем по трубе сдвинуть колпак.

Далее выбираем оправку, при этом нужно проследить за тем, чтобы её диаметр был несколько меньше диаметра тех подшипников, которые установлены на валу. После этого стоит у одного из необходимых подшипников установить оправку.


Крестовина кардана
Оба игольчатых подшипника, которые расположены на той же оси, на которой расположена и оправка, нужно вывести. Сделать это можно легкими ударами молотка. После этого с крестовины нужно эти 2 подшипника снять. Поворачиваем вилку и крестовину, а затем из ушков, расположенных на вилке,  выталкиваем подшипники. Теперь можно вынуть из него крестовину.

При замене подшипников кардана или полной разборке этого механизма нужно проверить, смазаны ли все подшипники, а также нужно уделить внимание тому, не попали ли в смазку случайно какие-то посторонние частицы, в том числе и грязь. Если такое случилось, то использовать такую смазку категорически запрещено, поскольку так можно в значительной степени навредить всем остальным деталям. Кроме всего прочего, тщательно проверьте, не засорены ли каким-то образом каналы крестовины. Если каналы чистые,  то в крестовине непременно видно сквозное отверстие.

При условии, что отдельные шипы находятся в сухом состоянии, а сальники и подшипники при этом совершенно не нарушены, перед заменой крестовины кардана или его подшипников, нужно очень внимательно проверить, в правильном ли порядке ко всем подшипникам поступает смазка. Специалисты рекомендуют для осуществления подобной манипуляции промыть саму крестовину (старую, менять пока не нужно), а затем тщательно протереть подшипники.

На шипы, которые лежат противоположно друг другу, нужно надеть 2 подготовленных подшипника. После этой процедуры в тисках зажимаем подшипники до тех пор, пока в абсолютно неподвижных подшипниках крестовина будет с легкостью вращаться. Затем надеваем 2 подшипника, которые у нас остались, и струбциной зажимаем их.

На следующем этапе нужно тщательно проверить, насколько легко в подшипниках вращаются шипы. Дальше до полного открытия клапана маслёнку смазываем масленку. Заметим, что клапан должен открываться исключительно тогда, когда давление не будет ниже 1кг/см2. При условии, что даже при более низком давлении клапан открывается, можно говорить о неисправности, ведь тогда во все подшипники, имеющиеся у нового шарнира, не будет поступать необходимое количество масла (а, возможно, оно вообще поступать не будет).

Замену шлицов кардана нужно происходить только тогда, когда он ни при каких условиях не поддаётся какому-либо исправлению. Через пробковый сальник смазка может поступать тогда, когда давление равно или превышает отметку 3,5 кг/см2. При этом, правда, нарушается герметичность.  Для того чтобы произвести проверку клапана, который находится под давлением, его необходимо ввернуть в специальный тройник с манометром, который ввернут в него предварительно. Также стоит подвести к нему шприц со смазкой.

Шлиц кардана
После этого необходимо внимательно осмотреть шипы, находящиеся на крестовине. При условии, что на указанных шипах есть любого рода отпечатки, которыми являются следы от иголок, важно, что суммарный люфт вала не превышал нормы, а также при езде не было стука и вибраций. Замена кардана не нужно тогда, когда глубина вмятины не превышает 0,1 мм.

Кстати, специалисты отмечают, что могут быть заменены лишь отдельные подшипники и при этом может полностью сохраниться крестовина. Но возможно это только при условии, если поврежден лишь один подшипник, сальник, колпачок подшипника либо же смято кольцо.

Купить или продать любые детали, которые нужны для замены шлицов кардана или самого этого устройства, можно с помощью нашего сайта.


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