Потенциал каломельного электрода

30 июля 2015г. - 16:19 3402 просмотров


Потенциал каломельного электродаПриготовить водородный электрод достаточно трудно, да и пользоваться им также затруднительно в обычной среде. Для осуществления калибровки электродов лучше всего отдавать предпочтение каломельному электроду, поскольку он является вторичным электродом сравнения.

Что такое каломель?

Каломелью является хлорид ртути (I), представленный формулой Hg2Cl2. На каломельном электроде, как правило, всегда осуществляются полуреакции.

Он входит в состав насыщенного раствора KCl, что позволяет оформить схему по такой формуле:

Hg2Cl2(TB.), Hg(ж.) | Сl-(насыщ.)


Уже давно известны все значения потенциала каломельного электрода и все они максимально точны даже в условиях изменения концентрации и температуры. В том случае, если раствор хлорида калия составляет I моль/дм3, потенциал будет в свою очередь составлять +0,2812 В. Если применен более насыщенный раствор, то это число измениться на + 0,2415 В.

Схема каломельного электрода
Каломельный электрод включает в себя платиновую проволоку, погруженную в небольшую каплю ртути. Та в свою очередь погружена в раствор хлорида калия.

Уравнения окислительно-восстановительных процессов в нём может быть разнообразными.

Вот некоторые из них:

Формула окислительно-восстановительного процесса
Уравнение Нернста:

Уравнение Нернста
Достоинство

Во-первых, в отличной воспроизводимости самого потенциала. Возможность работать в рабочей среде с температурой, достигающей 80 градусов. Если температура зашкаливает, то каломель разлагается. Однако, каломель сейчас редка в применении, поскольку в ней содержится токсичная ртуть.


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