Типы электродов

30 июля 2015г. - 17:36 5774 просмотров


Типы электродовХотя метод сварки плавлением широко распространен на сегодняшний день, однако большинство конструкций изготовлены именно путем применения ручной дуговой сварки. Данный вид сварки осуществляется штучными электродами, внешне напоминающими металлический стержень.

Один конец стержня, длина которого составляет 30 мм, зажат электродержателем с целью снабдить электрическим контактом. Второй же конец очищен, чтобы в момент контакта с изделием не было трудностей, связанных с поджогом дуги.

Надо сказать, что несмотря на то, что чисто внешне конструкция кажется простой, металлический электрод по своей технологической и металлургической системе довольно сложен.

В момент плавки электрода возникающие процессы разительно отличаются от металлургических процессов, осуществляющихся в период плавки стали.

Следует отметить краткосрочность, небольшие по объему реагенты, высокую степень температуры в зоне сварки, а также интенсивное контактирование металла, шлака и газа.


Внешний вид электродов
В столбе дуги, помимо расплавки, происходит испарение железа и его химических составляющих. Наблюдается активный процесс окисления, поглощения металлом газов, пропитка наплавленного металла азотом, кислородом и водородом. По истечении всех этих процессов наблюдаете легировку, окись и раскисление металла.

Все металлургические и химические свойства электродов можно определить по свойствам шпаков. Те же свойства, но уже самих шлаков, определяют то технологическим свойствам шлака Соотношение компонентов покрытия металла должно быть таким, чтобы по окончании температура плавления снизилась, шлак стал вязким, а интервал затвердение был укорочен.

Основные характеристики электродов:

  • удлинение
  • ударная вязкость
  • угол изгиба
  • повременное сопротивление изгибу

Согласно этих характеристик и ГОСТа 9467-75, строится следующая классификация типов электродов:

  1. К  первому типу относятся электроды э38,э42, э46, э50. Все эти электроды применяются в процессе сварки стали, временное сопротивление которой способно достигать 490 Дж/кв. см.
  2. Ко второму типу относятся электроды э42, э4б, э50 А. Данные электроды используются в сварке тех же сталей с повышенными требованиями к металлу, связанные с удлинением и вязкостью.
  3. К третьему типу относят электроды э55,э60. Они необходимы для сваривания сталей, временное сопротивление который превышает 490 Дж/кв. см. При этом способно достигать 590 Дж/кв. см. Все эти электроды именуются под общегрупповым названием «Электроды для сварки углеродистых и низколегированных конструкционных сталей».

 

Упаковка электродов
В зависимости от вида покрытия все типы электродов различаются своими сварочно-технологическими свойствами. Вид покрытия влияет на проведение самой сварки во всех положениях.

Электроды для сварки легированных конструкционных сталей повышенной и высокой прочности

Эту группу составляют сварочные электроды для легированных сталей, временное сопротивление которых по отношению  к разрыву составляет 590 Мпа. Различают два варианта сварки с использованием данных типов сталей: с термической обработкой и без термической обработки.

Если по завершении сварки следует термическая обработка, то используются электроды, направленные на достижение получения равнопрочных сварных соединений. ГОСТ 9467-75 выделяет 5 основных типов электродов, применяемых в сварке конструкционных сталей: Э70, Э85, Э100, Э125,Э150. Согласно стандарту, в состав металла входит фосфор, сера в процентном соотношении 0,030 %-0, 035%.

Надо сказать, что во время сварки, конструкции, применяемых в экстремальных условиях, а также сам выбор марки электродов влияет на химический состав металла и электрода. Все характеристики по химическому составу указаны в документации и на электродах.

Если сварка проходит без термической обработки, то прибегают к электродам, которые содействуют получению металла шва аустенитной структурой. В результате получаются сварочные соединения, которые характеризуются повышенной плотностью и стойкостью против появления трещин, а также прочным металлом шва. Собираясь использовать данные электроды, необходимо принимать во внимание ряд особенностей, свойственные исключительно этому типа стали. Эти электроды применимы, в том числе и в сварке высоколегированных и разнородных сталей.

Электроды для наплавки

Данную группу составляют электроды, которые предназначены для дуговой сварки и наплавки поверхностных слоев, характеризуемых особенными свойствами. Все электроды при изготовлении должны соответствовать ГОСТу 9466-75, ГОСТу 10051-75. В соответствии с наплавкой поверхностных слоев, в зависимости от химического состава металла и его твердости в условиях оптимальной температуры, различают целых 44 типа в соответствии с ГОСТом. Регламент, основой которого являются технические условия металла, определяет 6 типов электродов.

  1. Электроды, способствующие получению низкоуглеродистого низколегированного наплавленного металла. Характеризуемых повышенным уровнем стойкости, несмотря на трения металла с металлом и воздействия со стороны нагрузок.
  2. Электроды, способствующие получению того же металла и с теми же свойствами, выдерживающему рабочую среду с температурой выше 600-650 градусов.
  3. Электроды, способствующие получению углеродистого наплавленного метала, определяемый высокой стойкостью, в рабочей среде с абразивным изнашиванием и рядом тяжелых нагрузок.
  4. Электроды, направленные на образование углеродистого высоколегированного наплавленного металла, характеризуемый всеми выше перечисленными свойствами + высокими температурами, где в пределах 650-850 градусов.
  5.  А также электроды, участвую в сварке по выработке высоколегированного аустенитного наплавленного металла в среде с коррозионно-эрозионными свойствами.
  6. Электроды, вырабатывающие дисперсноупрочныемый высоколегированный металл, в условиях сложных температурных колебаний, достигающих шкалу в 1100 градусов.

Кроме того, наплавочные работы необходимо выполнять, использую специализированные промышленные технологии. В выполнение наплавки могут быть включены следующие этапы: предварительный подогрев, сопроводительный подогрев, термическая обработка и многое другое, необходимое для достижения всех свойств наплавляемой поверхности.

Электроды, предназначенные для холодной сварки и наплавления чугуна

Эту группу составляют, сварочные электроды, необходимые для того, чтобы удалять все дефекты в чугунных отливах. Кроме того, применяются электроды, которые необходимы в ремонте давно вышедшего из эксплуатации специального оборудования, а также в целях восстановления потрепанных деталей механизма.

В каком-то смысле, сварочные электроды могут быть полезны и  в сфере производства сварно-литых конструкций. Процесс холодной сварки и наплавки чугуна осуществляется без подогрева, так как в этом нет необходимости, раз теплодвижение понижено, протяжение валика составляет от 25 до 60 мм. В условиях температурного режима в 60 градусов валики подвергаются охлаждению.

Благодаря всем типам электродов появляется возможность вырабатывать наплавленный металл шва, с заранее указанными свойствами и характеристиками стали, стальных сплавов с медью, никелем, железоникелевым сплавом и т.д.

 

Различные типы электродов
 

 

 Свойства электродов:

  • сварка в любом положении в пространстве
  • род сварочного тока
  • производительность процесса
  • образование пор и трещин
  • наличие водорода

Все эти моменты нужно учитывать, выбирая электроды. Также нельзя забывать о видовой принадлежности покрытия (рутиловое, основное, кислое, с содержанием целлюлозы, комбинированное).

Использование электродов содействует обеспечению ряда условий:

  1. облегченное зажигание дуги и ее горение
  2. равномерная расплавка покрытия и покрытия шва
  3. свободное удаление шлака
  4. отсутствие каких-либо дефектов, пор, трещин

Все электроды классифицируются по таким признакам, как:

  • используемый в производстве электродов материал
  • Назначение стали
  • толщина покрытия стержня
  • вид покрытия
  • характер шлаков
  • свойства металла шва
  • разрешенные положения в пространстве во время сваривания сталей
  • наплавки металла
  • род и полярность используемого тока

Классификация электродов согласно ГОСТа 9466-75 по характеру свариваемого металла:

  • у — (низко-)углеродистые, конструкционные стали
  • л — легированные
  • г — легированные теплостойкие стали
  • в — высоколегированные стали


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