Червячный редуктор

28 июля 2015г. - 14:04 8552 просмотров


Червячный редукторМеханический редуктор – (от англ. «reduce» — уменьшать, снижать) это устройство, которое передаёт и преобразует крутящий момент между двигателем и исполнительным механизмом. Механический редуктор может быть как одноступенчатый, так и многоступенчатый. Чаще всего редукторы преобразуют низкий крутящий момент, но высокую скорость вращения в более низкую и пропорционально увеличившийся крутящий момент на выходе. Мультипликатором называется такой редуктор, которой повышает угловую скорость вала в ущерб крутящему моменту.

Многоступенчатые редукторы называются коробками передач, а редукторы с плавным изменением передаточного отношения называются вариаторами.

Редукторы делятся на классы главным образом по типу используемой механической передачи. Также существуют подклассы, определяемые тип корпуса, мощность, скорость вращения, передаточное число, способ охлаждения и другие малозначимые параметры.

червячный редуктор

Из большого количества редукторов можно выделить отдельный класс устройств, в которых передача осуществляется особым способом. Такие устройства называются червячными редукторами.


Червячные редукторы передают крутящий момент посредством червячной передачи. Червячная передача также называется зубчато-винтовой, поскольку основными элементами такой передачи являются зубчатое червячное колесо и винт-червяк.

Червяк – это особый винт с трапецеидальной формой профиля резьбы. Изготавливается из прочных материалов. Имеет много разновидностей, но на практике самыми удобными оказываются однозаходные, двухзаходные или четырёхзаходные червяки. Степень заходности зависит от количества индивидуальных каналов резьбы.

Червячное колесо внешним видом похоже на обыкновенное зубчатое колесо, но чаще всего резьба подогнана под форму резьбы сопряжённого с этим колесом червяка. Изготавливаются зубчатые колёса для довольно мощных червячных редукторов чаще всего из двух разных материалов. В качестве материала для зубьев используется высокопрочный антифрикционный металл, а для сердечника подходит любая прочная, но не дорогая сталь или обыкновенный чугун.

Червячная передача благодаря своей конструкции довольно эффективна в устройствах, где требуется высокий крутящий момент, сопряжённый с низкой угловой скоростью. Червяк является ведущим звеном механизма. Это означает, что крутящий момент от двигателя передаётся на червяк, а уже потом червяк передаёт момент на зубчатое колесо, который в свою очередь вращает выходной вал. Вследствие эффекта самоторможения червячная передача является необратимой. То есть приложенный момент к зубчатому колесу не сможет заставить двигаться червяк, даже при обилии смазки, поскольку силы трения во много раз превышают приложенную силу.

Достоинства и недостатки

Червячная передача в силу своих конструктивных особенностей имеет как достоинства, так и недостатки.

Из достоинств стоит отметить плавность хода, эффект самоторможения, низкий уровень шума, большое передаточное отношение с использованием всего двух деталей.

Из недостатков следует обратить внимание на сравнительно низкий КПД, повышенный износ, заедание, большое тепловыделение вследствие сил трения. Низкий КПД обуславливает применение подобных механизмов при передаче относительно небольших мощностей до 100 кВт. Для предотвращения скорого износа и заедания необходимо соблюдать требования к точности сборки и регулировать механизмы. Высокое тепловыделение требует специальных установок для отвода лишнего тепла.

Различие редукторов в основном сводится к различиям червяков и зубчатых колес, из которых собран данный червячный редуктор.

Червяки разделяются на типы по следующим признакам:

  • по количеству заходов резьбы: однозаходные, многозаходные
  • по направлению нарезки резьбы: правые, левые
  • по форме винта, на котором нарезана резьба: цилиндрические, глобоидные
  • по форме профиля резьбы: с конволютным профилем, с архимедовым профилем, с эвольвентным профилем
  • Зубчатые колёса разделяются на типы по следующим признакам:
  • по типу колеса: собственно колесо, зубчатый сектор, вырожденный сектор
  • по профилю зубьев: прямой, вогнутый, роликовый (вместо зубьев используется вращающийся ролик)

фото червячного редуктора

Червячные редукторы со встроенным двигателем называются червячными мотор-редукторами. В редукторах чаще всего двигательный вал располагается под прямым углом к движимому. Компоновка червячного редуктора выбирается исходя из конкретных требований к устройствам. Двигатель может располагаться как сверху приводимого в движение колеса, так и снизу и сбоку. При боковом расположении двигатель устанавливается вертикально. Вследствие вертикального расположения усложняется процесс смазки подшипников вала, а также чистки внешних элементов.

Для увеличения передаточного числа используются разные технологии, но наиболее эффективной является применение большего числа ступеней.

Для смягчения сил трения и повышения сопротивления заеданию применяются специальные вязкие смазочные составы или масла. При низких скоростях вращения смазка осуществляется при помощи специальных ванночек с маслом либо использованием специальных устройств, разбрызгивающих смазку в места повышенного трения. Для червячных редукторов, скорость вращения которых высока применение ванночек нецелесообразно, и применяется принудительная смазка охлаждёнными смазочными материалами.

Основные преимущества редуктора червячного перед зубчатыми передачами заключаются в том, что начальный контакт звеньев происходит не в точке, а по линии. Также входной и выходной валы могут скрещиваться под разными углами, но чаще всего этот угол составляет 90 градусов. Также червячная передача занимает гораздо меньше места, чем зубчатая при одинаковом большом передаточном отношении.

Помимо червячного редуктора червячная передача также применяется в системах регулирования и управления различными устройствами. Благодаря самоторможению обеспечивается точная фиксация положения, а большое передаточное отношение (до 1000) позволяет наиболее точно отрегулировать положение, либо использовать маломощные двигатели. Также червячные передачи и червячные редукторы отлично подходят для установки в качестве механизма передачи в подъёмные и лебёдочные механизмы благодаря своим конструктивным особенностям.

Некоторые технические характеристики промышленно производимых и широко распространённых червячных редукторов.

Самыми распространёнными являются одноступенчатые мотор-редукторы.

Тип Передаточное число Частота вращения выходного вала об/мин Номинальный крутящий момент на выходном валу Нм
редуктор мотор-редуктор
Ч-20 МЧ-20 5 — 50 28 — 300 4
Ч-25 МЧ-25 6
Ч-31,5 МЧ-31,5 8
2Ч-40 МЧ-40  5 — 80 9,37 — 300 28 — 37
Ч-50 МЧ-50 50 — 70
1Ч-63, 2Ч-63 МЧ-63 5 — 80 7,5 — 300 95 — 135
1Ч-80, 2Ч-80, Ч-80 МЧ-80 150 — 280
Ч-100 МЧ-100 315 — 570
Ч-125 МЧ-125 615 — 1000
Ч-160 МЧ-160 1100 — 1900
Ч-200 МЧ-200 1600 — 3100
Ч-250 МЧ-250 2700 — 5700
Ч-320 МЧ-320 4400 — 10000
Ч-400 МЧ-400 6500 — 19000
Ч-500 МЧ-500 8200 — 33000
РЧН-180 МРЧН-180 12,5 — 50 20 — 90 1300 — 1800
РЧП-300 МРЧП-300 16, 25, 50 20 — 40 4200

 


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