Фланец ГОСТ

28 июля 2015г. - 10:02 3183 просмотров


Фланец ГОСТФланец – это плоское круглое или прямоугольное кольцо, в котором симметрично вырезаны отверстия для крепления. Он используется для обеспечения герметичности стыков различных конструкций – труб с арматурой, валов, емкостей и различных деталей.

Обычно используют пару таких деталей (комплект). Соединение, осуществляемое при их помощи, называют фланцевым.

Изготовление фланцев принято называть исполнением, и оно строго регламентируется различными ГОСТами.

Главным определяющим фактором для расчета фланцевого соединения является рабочее давление. В данном случае исполнение должно удовлетворять требованиям ГОСТ 12815-80.

Этим ГОСТ фланец предусматривается 9 различных видов исполнений – для различной конфигурации. Это с пазом, шипом, впадиной, выступом, соединительным выступом, под линзовую прокладку, с пазом под прокладку из фторопласта, под прокладку с овальным сечением, с шипом под прокладку из фторопласта.


Различают 4 типа фланцев:

  • Плоские
  • Воротниковые.
  • На свободном приварном кольце.
  • Для сосудов и аппаратов.

Действующими являются как российские ГОСТЫ, так и иностранные – американские и немецкие.

В последнее время в связи с распространением предприятий с импортным оборудованием, работающем в соответствии с американскими и немецкими стандартами, возникла необходимость в не совсем стандартных переходных фланцах. В этом случае изготовление присоединительной поверхности регламентируется импортными стандартами, а воротниковая (или юбочная) часть – по российским стандартам, в соответствии с отечественными размерами трубопроводов.

Российскими стандартами регулируется давление на стыках трубы и присоединяющихся частей от 1 до 200 кгс/ см ².

ГОСТы, в соответствии с которыми должны изготавливаться различные типы фланцев следующие:

  • плоские – на основании ГОСТ 12820-81;
  • воротниковые – в соответствии с ГОСТ 12821-81;
  • на свободном приварном кольце – на основании ГОСТ 12822-80;
  • для сосудов и аппаратов – в соответствии с ГОСТами 28759.1-90, 28759.2-90, 28759.3-90, 28759.4-90.

Но это далеко не все ГОСТы. С 01 апреля 2012 года введен в действие еще один российский ГОСТ Р 54432-2011, регулирующий изготовление арматурных деталей, соединяющихся частей и проводящих труб на расчетное давление от 1 до 200 кгс/см2.

В данное время эти изделия чаще всего изготавливаются штамповкой, центробежным электрошлаковым литьем, поковкой или плазменной резкой из листа.

Поскольку от фланцевых соединений зависит герметичность стыков соединительных частей и прочность трубопровода, к материалу, из которого они изготавливаются, предъявляются особые требования. Это высокопрочные, устойчивые к коррозии материалы, такие как ковкий чугун, сталь, медь, латунь.

При изготовлении таких деталей в соответствии со стандартами, наряду с повышенными требованиями к марке материала, строго учитываются такие факторы, как параметры среды (условное давление и температура), а также материалы, из которых изготавливаются крепежные шпильки, гайки и болты. Кроме того, строго рассчитывается их работоспособность. Расчеты должны быть подкреплены эксплуатационными данными или экспериментально.

Кроме того, ГОСТами определяется, с какими прокладками могут участвовать в соединении фланцы. Материалы и размеры прокладок утверждаются отдельно нормативно-технической документацией.

Иногда допускается наличие незначительных вмятин, забоин, раковин и других дефектов на поверхности изделий, если это не влияет на качество герметизации.

На наружной или внутренней стороне каждой такой детали должна быть выполнена маркировка, на которой указываются торговый знак, марка материала, условный проход в миллиметрах и условное давление. Хотя допускается по согласованию с заказчиком не производить маркировку или производить ее на табличке, привязанной к комплекту продукции. Также это допускается в том случае, если фланец входит в состав арматурного комплекта.

Эти детали, кроме тех, которые изготавливаются из материалов, стойких к коррозии, должны быть покрыты пушечной смазкой или другой, которая по своим качествам не уступает пушечной.

Транспортировать их можно только в соответствующей таре.


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